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Full text of "elm alasawat"




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VW^J t^3UaJl A^L^ L;?^'^ 3:^^^^' (j-* -vj j-. ^U !j_a ^^ 1 >,..-^ Lg.A^I 

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^ ^1 jla A_ij^) <_)^^! ls\<.rS\ ^t ^U^t JXa J^l ^ji 
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(-^'^J'^' LT^ ^.Af^I ojXJI o-a text - book Lii^ Jlaj t^jL^ c^LLdij . Lt-LA^ 

Ji^ «Gj^ jij . ^J:^. i^ \^JSi^^ sJL-^ j-^UJI aU ( AjLa-iJa CjdilJ LiKj 



^ Or^f^'-^' LS-^ *^j^ j' * Ji,>-''^1 tjT^ ^^J^J <J^ ^llUI ^>d>-^ 

La O-UJ 4J_i_J 'LituJI ,'<-**' *J ' <Lt^l^ oLa^uj ^.1:\: A !j ( "LuAlj LajLa jLojC 
( Lj j,a.i-<a-a J lil^iij <6_j^ia^ Cl)l^_>J.xijj o!iLjjAll Sjlj-c-aVI a j^ o a'A-% . 

. Ij l^a ij 1 ^ ^ '> ^ I t^i.ijU-;. IJ ,3^^LLa J_;J:2»JJj < otALaJl 
d I M at,.. lj «LjLi^ aJ t A...^ jl p,Llj « \.^" ^1 Lsj^iUljI jl 1 (^"h-al «_jjaliuj 

lla JaLIjj . Jx^liU iljLJ) oLji-ikJ) j_^ J^LDij J^\ Cy U-^ '-^>^ 

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^i^Jlk:! Aj£. ^jIaj - JiVI j^j - jl ~ ^j,^,^^-o^j /jj^. ^-:. - 

. 4_^UiJJ JU^VI ^l£il ^ J^^l 1=^^ UJL^ l_>aA^j . (_>^UJIj 
^} 2_s^i OJliJt o-^!>l JjLLj ;_jLiU! I^ ^I LAjS ^j;, L^ 

j^l ^^ V)) : Jjij - (^ \YA1 S^UJI L - i\ ji) njux, ^jbJI 

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; t_jljjt ^^jl ij^ ujl^i^l ^-ij 






: (J qj-£iJl 4lLuj <Lj^ 

< jn^,^-^~ yj5 Phonetics o)j.-aVl ^ j^j' J-'-^^' '-^ t^ ^^ 
<jjL« LjIj^I L^J^ Oj-->- ij-a oIj-'-^V! aj^ Aaj jU i„), - «i -^ ; j < LaUj 

■ ^'jjJI JL^*-oj JjU'llj (_j«j^' j^yi^jlijjt 

^ ^^kHI ^U-A ^_y^liJlj « 4_iiklll LfjU^j L^jLi-^ ^^l SjUiVU 
^^^ jjij ( 2 j.-.'a'JIj A_jj,AaJI t2>^'^j-..Ll]l ^ ( ^L«J) ^jl 1^ jLjVI aj-A 

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5^ljjj ^_^-ai£_j JjVL((Lj^jJj_aj),> ^1 ^LLjj-tj .Phonology ol^^^VI 
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^Jcj < genera! phonetics ^UJ! olj^^Vl ^J^^ <-Sj^ U ^jj ^jLXi 
4-i_j_jaJI AjLULS < *^^:H<-« ^ i^ ol^^L^Vl S^ljjj ^LUI ^"tijj , a;>, Jl 

JaLjJLII JjI^j g^ ^ '"^ll i±i^iia. (3-a j&ijLJi IJ4J «^!j . °j''-^" J^^J 



Phonology^ (dL_::L_ij_LJ)) Phnr^eUr^ ^ . ^ L I .^^ li^^ . I- , 

. ^^VLi La^Jzi.1 AJ^Uij 



^\ L4J t_j^VI A_ujijjJi a J-A (ji .->(3 'r^-* ; jj^j < ^^y^\ i^jUJi Lf^jLi. 
^^"-^ ^1 1 J A Lpk jJ j-iil I j^lj £A^i£JI djlj-t-al 2_«j|j^ j_^Li. ((iiiijLijAj)» 

. Langue IJdWj Parole ^^iKll 

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^s^ ^,a4 oH^b f '^! SjUJI 2-.^ JjVU . '.^^^1 J! Jlil^^U 

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. Phonemics ((CiiLaAJjiLll ^ir.)) aj-a^-j La a^jJ jL^o (__yj^ 

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^ ^j\j .±^1 ^ ^a5!j .VLLo ^^I <aV . JjVl ^L=JI ^! 4_^Lk 

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ai£. S^^La. oLk5j LlaSjj <t3^' jU^ cs^'-zH J^ ^^^ ^ Xj'vK^.II 

. 4_i_il_ijJI A^jjjjjJLi <i..a_t-ii t^ ( ?- viiJLj 

Ol-axu ^J (jjJI Cjlj-t-aVI (^ IjJC jJ^"'w Sf J J.--V ^ J£ ( ,-.1 r j ^-^ ^ 

jl «c:Ajljx^t»j Consonants ((Cj-alj,^H)> ^ Jlal^Jl .^sjjjuJI ^^^LliJl 

<Q-ia_a A_laJLc ^^^bu3 ^^Ji, i <lj'no'i1l !j^ ^^^Ij al^ Vowels CjLS^^^^aJI 
jljJlS i -i^^-csL^L oVLii. (iUalujlj Laj^La. LLjj^ ^jIj'SII ^^j^ 3.j^ 

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ji oUi j_^[ S_iaL^! cji^^VI ^Ail..^ ^1 J..»-^S ! j^ ^ i^s.^ 

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J Jfl? ^1 1 LhhH^J ' L^^^^b J-H^' ^J-4-^ J_lJ_2^ JJi_i LlJjL:^j 

i <JLaLt^) Cjij-t-saliU ''LiC.^^>ill ol-liJ! jV^ A^j-a.-a-a ^Jl tiU j ,j^ L1a4J1J1 ^ 



j_j[ SjuiuVLj ((A^jL=*» yOJa-t^A^I. Aj-^-LaJ |J.-...{a^i )j^ j_S Ll^^ 






UojiJI "Llii^ ^-*'j ' C5,>^' LS^^ *-"-^ (J-* t "J^J ljui£. ' al"-^" L^)^ i i3^alJI 
il j^ t^a . <LaJ A_j| CjlSj^:^ <LujIjJ jli. ^_i Lilu^^>J-ui-i 4_j^Lc _j_ijL»_a « • -^ j 



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t^jL^^VJ LJLiSjJl Glj-i^Vt fiLLt-aiAj La£, d*JJ:^Lj Ja-aAl! 'jji ^j-SiIL^! 

3;^'*^ L?^' *^-i,.>^' cjl^^-t-saVI Ljjjj^j . jL^Aj VIj fiAs^! A^^^_k« Lj^^au^j 



. 6j^-4^)j L_iLaJlj jLaJL^ i ^•i^ p\j\j l^^kj 1 j ^'a *_)_^! i-J^llikV 
(A^^^i-aJ! !j^ i ^j 1r 3 ) ^ * J ,^j-iJ' <Lj_)j_aJI ci.l__^-<-aVl Ljjd^j (^Li_ij_aJI 

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WT^^ LT^ L5^' ,hJ^*-^b * Ja^^l ^^^4^ 'iri'i^^ ^ >^' ^^ ^ '' ? <3 '' J 

. Sj-ftUaJS ft j j ^ a .A-^t ^JLII Cj'j-I-ioV! (^j_l_iAJ ig^J ' ^illfiJl AJ^JlAJ I3J-SJL1 



C^^y^ J^ j^ ^>^' LS-*'-^' ^LJ( ^;;j-6 ^x;^) Ij-A j^ lj^i«i-a olSj 



. t^klll jic *ilj4JI jjj-o ^^1-^J 'iJlsuJI r->i-o 



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. (iLiJIj j'^'j k™ilVI : a-aJi i_ij^_^:^ A-ajlc 
Lajj^^i oL^^^! t_^!^^i>^ t^b^l ^>> ^J^l pLalaJ ^2)i '-Jjj^j 

^ t J 

'l^j^j '^j^ u^\j^ L4J ^jVj tl.JQ\ ,^iL^ ^ liiiu^ <^1^ j>=^ 
jl * A.^dUI ,_Jx^ ^ UaLu^ ^1^ oUliU ^> f.sJ\ X^ CLw^>^ oi Lpl 



j^J\ i>sj^ J dJ J . ^1^ ^ ,_3^kU! ^\j% S^^^i^l ^ o:iilii- ^_^1 
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jjUJt ;>d (_>"jJj * ^i c3J^-^ chJ^i'^ '-^j-F'-j *f^^-=^ al£.iifl ^JJ^ 

. (2=U>aJ!) Gl5>al( (JuJusaJ i ^yjHJ"! Jj^a^l 

ci)L$,^l) 4_i^!j ^j^*^lj ^^uiiJL; t^j^! ^^ U ^c ((^L^j^l)) 
.SjuU^I c.\^"i\ C^Mj W^ 3j^ cs^' U^LwVl oUuJIj oLL^! 

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CiA^ t> jUiUI ol£>JI l^jlj 1J! ^j^h- ^^ji-=l j^ V LA^ ^Ls 
^ ^Ll; , 12^ jL^UI oL^_>^l ^Lj-u^ ^_^ ^_^ ^1 UiiJUj 

ol£,^ 14ALl«^ f:^^^ V . A^Uu. C^\JJl1 J^^^^ V) ^--^1 SoSljJI 

(5JUV!) L^l ^j . AA,^ 0U4J j) U^ -L^l^ 5JUVI of c:>:^^ er^ 

T^^'j '--^ ^^1 c.\S^^\ J ^1 dJa J^ ^ \ \j^..iJlj 

j^ L>d^j . J)^ o:iUj jL^ oliU: cw.^^.^^ ^I»^l ^ -^".1 1 

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■ ^Wi* f>"^^^ j;<_i--i^) ^ 2_i^UJl <jjL_ijlJI 






: Jjj-ixS 'Lj.lilj <Uj 



^_^ 'ULi*l^l Jx^l ^^^ The Phoneme <(^^1), ^k.^^ JlLl 
->^ ' LS^J-^^ J^' J^J t>JJI JJ,>^J ' Jlk^l alls^ o>.^ 



,^[ (.{l]\j i^UJlj ^LJLS < A^Il^^l Sj^jJU ^..4^J=^, <-I^j ' ^.^i*^' 

^! 1^ l^^jJj . ^^^ Ji^-=^^ ^ J^^ ^Ue-J v*-^ f^^' 
,do^!,^^ l^^i^j <i^ijj ^ t^^j o,j^ * u^' '■^ lP o^-^^*^' ^^^ 



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Ol Jl:^ 



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Prosodic <^^^lll jjsS^U (^Ull ^^1 ^-H^lj < ^P,>^^ ola^jJLj 
o^^ cu.^:Lai ^1 A^>i=^Vf U.j.i^i oJ^i x^\ il^^j - features 



j ^ ' 
cjL^j Lij^ jj ' ^kUI ^^H^ ^^^ ^j^j ■ t^j^ 



! ^1 IAaj 



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t>= (_>uJ j! (aj^)a^uit^V) L-a^^l tXa LUiij 4a^^ olLi-A oWj j' 

. oliJJI (— alia^ i^^ii. J 4 1* 1 'n *U i3:iij 4_ij^_^ f^-^ J(] ..ill 

stress ((jjIJI)) ,^ iJ^jJ\ ijj-SJJ IV.^ jr La^ ( ^ J j:'' ^ ' J^^ CjLaJJIj 

(La^-i^^^^^ia ,^^ i-il-Nj (jJ-LujldJI tjAa-i (^1 LUi^V cuja. ^accent «<j^l)>j 

. aj^j-li (j-^ <^j j^yir. L^ g 'm V Aj^ dLlA Cj^\£ f^\j 



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— *a^^! — 4_k5jJ!) a^^^t j^ij^ij ^5ts^t 4g^^ua>« jt (ftjUm u^j) 

Ja:^! Uj ^'i" ^_^ ^^ jj J Ls_o La^j . ^Llajlill^ (JLIj-AUs (5_2s.l^^i^ VI 



A^j . 4_ii£. i_S ti aJI ■_!■* '^j j^\ i^jLil-al] <Lil^ljJI CjLaiJjl uJ^^AJj . ^JS 
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. aLaaJi \isA (c-S ft' 't^ '>.^ La ^^ lj-4^ 

^j^ < J"-;-tl ,^Lla.l ^JAJ (3J^iiJI 1^ A j^ aVI yi-j IjjJ aJ ^jl '-Jj^^ 

jl f A_jJV.iJI AjJuJij (^[ ^^! i-A^ ■ ^l •■■ Ajj-^JUj ^.x^Lfilculj A_ijLtj[ 

LiSj ( Lg_iiu\_lj " tl i ^ " ^ . ^ 1 1 iJ-t-alj-iJI tj-a A 1 i-^Ls SjLc. i ^ ) -^V <.<r^I> 
t AiajLfJ! A-aJLllI t_j-> , l ->-■" SLiijJ) i^\ Lll=La.Vj .A_-aLi-aj 3j-^^^' Aj j j K 1 
;_*«- ! .^U A_ailll _-^ > -^" A't<,,t1l (jlj < A^Uuj A^iKJI AJI4J (^^ aJVj 

ijJjLa. ( a_ij_^jaJ! j-j ijijLLs^t 2-^lj-^ ajjsJ u- i^'^^i i (j-« (j>-^ *-ajj 

JaJ JXJ LjJ (j-»-i3 Jl ■ jJ-"J '■^ ^>^L-S "-i "^•■■11 Lai . A_ii£. jl <_iJ uJj^jJ! 



2-Jiii^i j-c^ij <^-a=_)jiJi j-o^t ^uui 6ifj Ux^Vi ^^ji ^^ 

.j^) ... UK - UIh - LLh Jia < A_^UJ! 1^J\ c^IjjV 

■ ^^J W^J^^i J-^lj Lik^ Jx^li : Jo^Ij J^ii La^ Jli <A_jLiU) 

j^-aliaJI aIa ^I tj-« ■ 5V1 ^os^t ^ Sj^Lu^t :aii^Lijt aiLi i»iA« j»jZi ii:uw 

Lp^j i ^j.>*-A ^-^T^^-« i^VU. j^ k^\ ^\j^ Lf^!^! ^-^^ j_yiJ! ^^UJ! 

<Li9.^ JL^ ^ (dUaS *-i^^b) ^'^'^"■^i ^-^^ Ia^H^I j^jJi liL-iVLj 



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ji£^ l^^y^\ oUljJ! S^^Am^ 2-?^ iJjL=^ j^ i^jV) :a£aAiJi ji«:u 



lj_a ^ AJLa-cl cji-oL£_3 ^jl |_^[ ( j_L4iij C>^-5 J-'-^j i3-'^-^j LiLui»l 

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jj^)) _i A.jji(j_aJI 'LjLj;£ j-i dUj J^ J^-a"j . A_ijlj^ JJ:a.j (J^Jj' •LuiAul 

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S V\ U^U^l cjI^uoVi t (j^liJI tUi^! 

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Y ^ A^Llis. VI ol^^^Vl t ^mi J.iAfi^i 

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Y * ^ (SX K-i^ VI - c;Ui^l) 2_i^_>Jl Cit^^^Vl . ^t^i t^iit^t 

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•i-jjl-aJ! tji '\J> -> .LL1I ^2j-« 1 ^ 1 s _\ J 1-^ ^j.*^-^ ij (LfJijI J.j^!j_aj :-.S j .^ Vl 

.;Jjl=i_LJ)j (_>"j^' (s-S ,>J^~i-j' oL^-Shj t^wiirr^j ("^liula aJi 

JjIj f -Uaji^p^ 2_iJLlXo ti' J^! ji CjljJai^ c^L^i^ a*JI<JI AjUr '^^"'-" 

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CJ ' '^ " M * * * '" 

((jLdls. (jLiJxiiJ (^LijLi*. La^_iJ| jUiiaJI ^^^j_ijL=JI tjjjji ,jl itJjVi 

.4_iilaJ! A_i.uiilJ! LajU! j! LajjL^s^V 

1 .XA cj SjIjus CjI jUf 4_iiiaJI i_Luiil]l oLiIasJI 6J-4 ^jl i^^jloJ) 
Oj-*-* ^ '^'n^ ~ ^J-*-^' J 1^ '' ^ I A ^^j ^2j-a — L^j,1c. A^N-t.!) Ja-^j Jji. j_^[ 

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•c^^^ J^ Jj ^-_ ^''Jf Jj ..s__^^„>^ 

(^JJ! ^1 J! j! ^)^l S_jLi^ ^j f^MliJ <1jLJ1 l^jl^i o)j^V| ( I ) 
^ ^^ Ls^b lJ^ Jj ^Li^ ^j (f.M<JJ S_Jli]| iLiio^l J:,lj:a.VI (^i.) 

wiij! oUic^i t> Vjj ^y^ JjLji ^^i^i ^^aU! ji j^ iji 

jjL^I ^M^I ^^IaJ ((Jj)> j Lj^pjill IJ4-; "(jS^iJ Ji"»J "iSJ^ J»J Jj» ;jJI.«^ (j f- ' J j) J^ajJI (N) 
oLijJI ja5U ^[^j2 «J ^)>j i^ySJI 4_iia£ j_jic JjLJi ^_^-UjJI jj^^M 2 .U".-l ^ a.-^j. iKlall j^ 

Lff^S j^ (j-fl-^ ( ) -l=LliJI Ul .,^j^^ Ji^ jiLiUI ^_^| ojjli ^UJ! ^;jjl ^ A^^^l oLdjiJIj 

•*I,>4JI ^ S_jiLilLj| oLjiliJIj CiLa-j-aJi ojji 



...a\i l (_jjLiJLs -^.^iJ '^,>^ ^QjsJLs-d — J^;Aj_^jiJjl ;j-=^ ~ LJ^lc- 

^jj C^' ' *-^>^ ~^3^ *-^J>^ L^j .*_wUJi Ij-A UlLii. ji uj^ ^^il^! 



^|_^j 1 g ;,,.l '.I La JJ-sJj L-ii j-ill LijjiiJ ^j*^ i^Laiil oIjUJ Laij -Lalll^ ,>J-"*^ ^-^:HJ' L>* ^-f " -" ^ - ^ 

Lai .mechanistic view Aj^AiLSlijJI ij^lll]! U-^jl ^^-a-^ i-j^j^V! i_jjJiiJ! ^ j_4 .^jjJJt ^i_iJLiJI 
j^j , weis o^Li aJlJLoLj !_pU-a iiiJ! ^ Ji\ (_,.iiil! jJt u'-^ 6^ -i^^j^ W^ -^ ^-i^*-^^' 

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— (^jk\S\ (^-isj^Li 5--oLlJ! <L^ i^ ^^UxJi ^•■■'a''il *_ijLiJI Lai 

. A jUc ^>J^J A.jUc, fc±>lj:i.l (j^ l.rt.jj-l« J^ -W^^ ^J ^LuJIj jiJ^J-AJI 
Jj^_vlJ| ^ Ua.^^ 6.i^'j^^*-^' ^"^S^ J^' 'i^ J^' t> tA ^-'f^J 

.4jjVjji^ ^j'^'illj sLLSjj«<aJ!a '^^"j'-^il ' i3 ■ -^ ' J -^ A \ ->> 1 '' ^Va L^' <Sj£. vlaj 

articulatory ^^^U'JI u-uL=JI j\ production oij^-sVI jlj^^l i_iJLi. — \ 

f- 
^jxAaJI jl j^y^jJjjr.i'qll u-wL=JLj (ill j^ 4^[ jLiUj La j^j aspect 

(JJaiJi a.iLa£. ^^ i_uL=Ji ij^ J^aIjj physiological aspect CjIj-^-q^ 

,^_^lilJ| g-l.,^£| oL^^^>^ J>-a A^l-f^a ll 6 j^ <Laiallj Laj aJSXoJI k_ijL:^ jj-o 

t_;jLaJ!^t transmission <^(j ^ II ^ a jl f^." '>VI jl JLLUi'i/l i_jJUa. — Y 
^ ^LaJI 11* Jj-aljj .phf sical ^^^Lj^jiJI jl acoustic ^<^i"...j<VI 

auditory aspcet ^^a^^^^S ^UJI j! reception a^^'A . ' ,>.ilwi ^U*. — V 
^^ LS"^' 'Sh,>*-^i oLik.^_^AiJ aJjLLJI cjLj J-jjJl iiilj |_j liiJj J^ •^"jj 



f, * 

^Lili.!jJ! Ojl ^j^LijL^j-o ^ t-fla£, ij-<i^j A-oLwJI tjj! •UliLi ^ 

.Cji^_j-'-!aVt fiijJJ [_y-^ 'S^x-Oiu wjl-t-2«£.' t_^J 

^ 6^^ tjjj L^ jl^'^Hj Lp^ljjj (j^aiiwaJl j-Aj < phonetics c^_y^'^\ 
^ IjjAj ^^rA"^j l4£.j^j *_iJl^^aJI a J-A J-ixj tjl _>A£. .^-aJJt ^ £,J>^ 

.AjLjj^j 42AJ_iiaJ l^J A ut-v"j i_tujjj Aj^j O^t ^ ' *_Ul^_^ ij-a L-H^ 
Laj-aj A^jJ j) l ^ '^ 'ar A j LgJj^ "^^i;^ (j-*J W^ L^J'iJ' lP'-^J ' -^J"^ tl>-=*j 

articulatory or physiological phonetics 

acoustic or physical phonetics 

auditory phonetics |^^a-&«JI ol^^-^^Vl ^£. — X 

t_ijl^j physiological ^ya-jJjj^ j\ is^y-^=^ ^^- 'l>:^J-'W' J-^ >^J 
S^" j.^i l cLjliJJl ^J& J^\ A"fljl;^ JjVI Lat .psychological (^^-^^ 






.^_L-s!j j^ La^ physiology of hearing *^,a.»JI 
J^ j_^ i^LLaj .auditory phonetics ^i^_^AA^\ cjij^-oV) ^)) j^t^r:.^!! 

_^l ^"JAlLi tl)^^ (UJLO 1 .fljj » ^-^ J-Aj tA .U^.'i cflLu^l Ij^ jjj^l-M^ ^j-* J^ 

dJij cJj'^T'^o ' psycho'ogical phonetics ''^-'a'>1l olj-^-aVI aJi.)) j^ 

CiijJI (^ SjS^ ol^^lai!.. <LiijLa^ t->^' '"^ LT^ ^-^'j'^' '-'^"^ J^J 



The Linguistic Science and Language Teaching i^^^J^ ^ oj^^Jj H.A.K. HaiUday .pVjj t> (V) 

.(Uiii fi.AA*jj ^,>iUI f.>i^' :*ij^jj c^ljjJL*) 

Speech and Hearing in Communicalion by H. Fletcher (1958) ; Message et phonetiquo, by Jean - 

CludeLafon(196I). 

LoLiIa! 4j ^\ Li£ ,(andio - physiologist) ^alJ\ L'^j b-"'' u^ o^^^-^^"- ■ ^j^' c^^UJi IIaj 

:jlo LLoJ) iJj^I dJjS JU.^1 \JLA ^ tij>=H i^Li-aj (tiierapist) i^liJI i-jja^ E-^*^ 
Hearing : its psycholog physiology, by .S. Stevens and H. Davis (1938). 



^'-^"^ t ^! 



4Jj) ^j! Li£ .perception psychology ((^IjjV! (_>JuJ! ^J^dj (_j-a-iLuJi jL^I 
jl < aLxJI (^jaJJ d_=i.LLo cjj^ oVIj 5J>4^I ^[ — diii Vj — rLx=JJ ^Liulj jJI 

(_^_ja_J LaLc Lj,_^iJ lia^ jl LdLc L_iJj.t-is \ ^^ > ui=*J ^jl jJLJjI (j-aj 

^ U: 9- j}A\ Ij-A f I j""^ ! — a-^_tAs_j (^^ Lai — CjLjjAa^! aJ-A j^ A. r\\'^ i^ 

.j_=i.^U=u-aV! aljjLAJ (^jAill Ci^i^! 

Jr. oLii.j_aJI a jji ^JJ LJ'^^' ^^-M= LT^ i_iJja^l oUi.j-aJI jUlIjI — ^ 
^j ,2u^Lk Sj^^Sil < i U.,, lj i VI ^ljj[ j^A-a-j'j ^(s-i*J ?<-ajjJ! »1 i.Ac.i 

- ii - 



, Jii Vj J^l V ( noise ?LJsj^ 1 j a.- j- .-oSj^^VI p 1 ^.-j <j_U£. 

s — s 

uj^ o' o^ f^ o^j (-i-iiAi 4_ilk: j^^x-a ^l L^Lj^ ^_^ SjjUI 



j\ ^.<^^,. 



(^A_lSl-aJl 1^ Cjlj-i-iaVI jljj.-a| i_uL^ ^?-^.^) O'^i tl):H-^*-^' "-^^^^^ OjJ»_aJ 



See : Robins, General Linguistics, An Introduction Survey, p. 85. (\ 
- 10 - 



i^ cjIj^-oV! 6J^ JLiUluI »^L^ j-^j) t^^' ^L=J! a-s^^a_J i_sJ^ 
— t '' '>< ^" ,j_LijLi.]i ^ ■_•! -^<- VI j;Sij-J 4ljij A^i^j jj| AAJ .(^-aL^J 

/^'phonetics Cjl,^.i-aVI aJr. JL=^ o-a 0"'j1 

5 S 

(Psychology and physiology of Hearing) <CU>-jljSLuiij ^^jaJI U>-^^j.u*i 



See; Vandryes, Language : Alinguistic Introduction to History, p. 19 (\) 
[\S ,j^ , ^LlJ! pit Jl t^yJ J^a^ . UU! : t^jujjAi^) 

j t- II 1 ^j'a . friction i£jliiiVlj plosion jU^VLS . Lfijiiaj-^j ^_^l ol -. .. Ik, . ,- ^! ^jAa.; 

i'-. .-^ ij dU j2 jjjj auditory impression ^^»j...iII ^Liki'^t ^^ , 'L^lLl tA^ ^l ,_juLwVI j_ji oljAi^i 
olj oUJLlJI ^_jj LiiiLLi ^1 cj1. -v1U , ^J I (j^ _j^ ^ Aji^J: L* Lkj^j ljj> Cy> J^h ■ ^-H^ 
j-iijj , mJ| «(2>iiii.)) ji <(A-j-ij)> ' <ii— ii*_4^)) jl (H5^» ^'l-j 1^1 J jl cj_^— aJt I J-4 J[ SjLLVIS ^UoI j_jLUJ! 

>ii.l LAa_tJ ii.i iJ^..H.-i -Jlilj ,~VI ^j-^'J t lj_a.iu I -'"■■- ijjLaJl !j-fJ |Jj_l_jJ LlLa I^LS *_j_jjjJ! f\ m I C , j^l 
oj-ft lj^_>ij — a-Uj La5 — »fJ5 ■ O^-o^JLj ^VI t j ' -^ a-ij ,>4-T^W I f"-^'; '>i^J Lojlfij iSji.^Lj 

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.ajSlLeJr <_jJL:i. (2>^ Ql^t^i:^ 31 jljxaisi "iL-iSjJ LSj_o J-lUJI Ji liil jj 1 ' ;? " '^ ^ 
<4_i_j) jJI A Ui •>, ^ n \ \ JLLaJI J ... — ^^ L-a_£! — ^lj_i-aJI I j_4j 

s s 

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.La^^j Laryngoscope 

L^_iic jLal£.V! t2>^-aJ (^i Li^lj-iJl ^lixu^l <Lki^j_l (^-iLlJI i^L^I ij^ 

f — 

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physiological ^^-^jJj j ..iJi H olj_t-oVI ^ \ c» :L_i_i_*uJ ojj^I ^_ujVI 
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.({articulatory phonetics ^^U\1I olj-^-aV! 

f- t e- 

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aLsJI (J^'-^I '=->'-* iI>-o Physiological phonetics ((^^JLjJjjAJI ldIjo-^VI aJ£.» 

Cj Lj Jj j (Vc A_:aj Lj LJ_ki.cs ij f. 1^4-J ' , c-S ^ )"■" ' "I I ^ ^ " * ■ ^ ' ! Cj Li. e-aJ la Cj L 1 Jj jJ ! 
lJ L=v 1 f\a i£J ' *' *i^ , Lii Luj t-tf-AJ I J Ltu-AJ I 4_iJ aj,^ I Cj Ls- q-aJ la Cj Lj ^ jJ ! . 5-A a 

auditory ^^^ n<<A\ olj-c-sVI aIs: ^L=^ ^ Jj*^' u-uL^ !iLoUij <lU-. j.s 
ajjLj ^Laj^j ^ rt-.ili jl i^-\\\ l\'^\\\.£.±Ai ^_5^i^t (_jjL^!^j phonetics 



.ia.1 -j'l -'1 lla j^jL^ Lujj (\ (j^ S^jU-.VI ft_4ijiJI) phonetics : JoLiS ^ B. M. Malmberg e-V^ ,jj (t) 
cLilj^^VI lie i(^_^l» ^lU.^jJL acoustic phonetics '^~<^j:^ j^JI ^_>»JI ^;;Ax-JUI ^Aa-jCitj ^I^Uu-VI 

auditory j^Vl ^^iJij f;__>iJI lia t;;^^ UUll ^1 ^^j^^ ^^-^e-j^' '•^ 6' "^ ■ ^^h-a^I i-iiaaJi ^Ia (j-L-I ^ 

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Ci£.Usi!LAji jJj .L^Afc^jj cjfj-t-^V! 'LujIjjJ Sjjjs>. (JjLujj ^mj^^ ^>^j 

A_^)jl j_S Jo J -V I ^ ^)^iJ_3i_Jj (A-ij-laj (jujjJI g— al ,\ -a J__Jbi_a_3 ~ T 
(jJjLia jj[ L^-iijIj oLa JAJI J:^.! ^JS^ j^^-i^^! <UuiJ ^^LjJjjiJ! Cj\^^j-^*^\ 

4_jlLJ! JL^iiiV! JjLwj j! f^UUl 3i„>i=j ^i>5-J' ^Jl Aj^^Ia^I A._ij^UJl 



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^ . evolutive phonetics LajjIsjj otj^-aV! ^>aaj ^^ j1a.\1I j| ,olj.t^VI 
j-al dJjj .JjLilLi Aj^^klJI SjLJ! ^^-k V < phonological 4_j^jJ^^ ^J^±JM\ 



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OS 

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Lai: <Ld^ ^ cjI^>^VI j,^ i^ ^"sjIxij^Vl J^LxJI 4_iAjil j_^[ Alonso 
. ' acoustic equivalence :cj1j u^sMJ <(|^*^ j " "■j-^'^1 Jj\ — *_lJI)) al — a_tu 

olj-i-isVI /^^^ ^J ^^jaI^wLiIJ /j^^^l AJ^i^jJ lj^,j-o ljJj-<a-o J^-^l! Ij-A jj-d 

^ t^All^l c>ij^^\ u:^^^' j' ui^^i-^^' Jl ^L^VLj ^^^^i^jjLiil 

^> i^J C^JJ^i di::^! JU=s ^_jJ ^JsJI IdJb <J ^jJLS ^OJI JjO^l 

t ^ C' 

(L^JUjLu i^ J^lj 1^1 jJa^:! ^L5 Sj^ j^^jJLi^^ jaL4J[ .2_S^^a_xJI ^jj jLi-a 

B. Malmberg. New Trends in Linguistics, (\ Y^ ,_ks ^JiJI jJ^. ^ ^j=. oUL=:;I : ^j^U) :_>k:l (\) 
. ^jl j_yU-o ^ acoustic J^»in.l ~ (^_^l t^^SUI j_yj LaS - Lu ^j^\^ o' c-^'>" u^J P- ^-^^ 
;j-.j;t~l l t_>^f_^l ^1 JLiL^^'iLj , auditory impression = : ol,>^!lU ^_5j_i«J! ^LikiVi J^iij o.j:a_; 

. B .^ ^J I f- UkJVI lii t_yuLu! ^_yi£. ajLt _>-iij t^iJI t^,>^l j jKaU "^Llfl LU jiJIjj . olj-ta"^! oJ^ 

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oL£_^i !,1& cj^[^ lj[ j^jij J4^) ajj.-.-!.! SjjU-al) olS_>=>JJ Aj^uUL l-fiLiij t^^"i- . " (S j^^il l^ 
(iJlaVl (>a j^iij US i^jLsVl cjLS_pJl Lfj a^^iijj) «"Light" voweis)) UL*^ ^i dis ijjU^I 
I j-,<l j , SjaUl l oLS^i JfS ^U 4^^ oii-ll'Jj aJ - Ul^yjl UIJI ^ g . !<: , v . b . p : olj-sVU 
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Sj .. /jj.;jl ^ fou ( - et) i^[ oj^ Fagu - *j''j.'!^lj ■ sAjj^J! ^AxuijiJI ^ cle ^^Jlj l^^l 

.A.^jU! Sj..,".jaii ^ pais j_jJI cJj^ pace — IaIu^JIj 

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*^jl.aft II 6 jjb ^jl ^^JX. .^Ijj« LS"^ i_5^^iai^ ji ^jl^o Sj^^j-fS ^_S (5,_>^l ^^ 
^j_ftj j_yjJI A_i_liJi JjL^jJI Jj-^J ,^5-U — tjjjjJ_J La_^ — ^Ajj_U 
i (] U ; J oL^[ LT^J • ^^' U-« ^Lc. ^jJ ^_^l tJj'^^jLJI ^jjIjlajJLi 
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aIc (j_o SjIuLi-eJI aJCLiAiAllfl (js>*-^' '^^""'" L-aJl S )Li:aJl .^< jj-^ t II aj_a 

- 01 - 



^j-a Jl^H U-^t J^-^ 6' t_5-Slalll olj^^VI ^AaS f^\S. Uij <Jji tj-3 LfJ ^s-U»J 

aJoJI J[ <_j^I 6j^ ^:j cpWjhi-^' olj-.-oV! ^ ^jLa VLlo J^^VIj 
■^j'->^b c5j^' -^j--^' JLacI (_y)l J^y^j^\ (^ U^ ji£lj 

! jj& S 'ajt; jj] experimental, instrumental or laboratory phonetics ^^j-Lts-all 

e * 



- 00 — 



^Li^L? ^'^' Jl uj^ ^ V->^' "^J Ls^J *^-i->^ *j,>^^^ C5>?^ 

.(^^jiJJI Oj.4-aJl jIjjxjLj S_a^^jL-al) |/^ JjJaJIj ?■ ^LklwVI t_iii. J| S-Cj^l 

(jAiJjAiLj Jj *"■ (-i ^^^J^JUJJ J^L^ LoJJij (A^LXJ (^^^jiJji O ^ J 1 1 jj^^Jaj 
j-_a ,_£. 4i-i 6-aJ I jt^'* 'I (j-ic j_AJ_aJ! JjLaILluVI jj-*> ^ ''jiJj A, ^fc. 'lua^ a ^^ .lc 

■ ar-<H 2_iil£ 4-Li^J QnmI 5L_uLajVI ^jVI (jl ■>() .At^ jLlltl j_jJj.4-aJl 

s 

^wjJI J A_Li_i«j j-s-j — A M \ \ cii5jJi (j-J ~ L.^.'tlj fCjj 1-^11 3-^^ ^ "^ u-^ 
(Jl iS^'M ^"i^j ^ jl*' jLiIjcVI jl . objective A^x.j^j-a V subjective 

aj_a "-^ Jj^ aJ A_ij^l A_ijL«ijVI tjjVI ^Li A\'>..^ Ajjc j\ ^!il^I 

A_L.«a CjIJ ftj^'''^ [^hJjLi-a je-S J-l L^Jji.j Cjl^5J-:aVI jLiwa ^^ V Sj^jH-^^ 
(j^_^' ?^^^ (c-^ -^^-^ '^'j Jl3 ^J '-^^ (SjiLiLi-oJl 4jL=^L^j (jLujJVLj 

- o"\- 



(_)^_jAC r_^^-*-j (^A^"g aWj (6jjj^ <j| ^^ j^LuiJVl cjj-<-aJlj ^ jU'r .i Ail 
^jLaJJl c5>?^J .1 1U"j, Lg-aL^ iiii-^ilJla 'Ja_klLi AjjJUlall 2_u,^^l 

Aaji <^UJ!j (material L^lj SjUJLj (j^aliJj <la.j-o *^jjlLa.j-a ^^-U 
iiUaJ .4-aLc (Ijlil^j a^^l^ *j>-=> Jl U^ pW^'iflj SjUJI 6dA jj>=-1j 

,L^i J SjLJJ 
- ov- 



. phonology ^UJIj '^'phonetics 

alA ^ ^J \U j \ ^ d '^ J ; LSXaJl oL_i_ij A_5jJLi I /> 4 \ ^ J^ JLa^ ,l_i.^-^" 
!l«-=ii I4J J^ ^>^ O-Lulj 4_iJLl6 Jl ^I'-N," j^\ ^^ (li^LaJI 

^We-j ui::iUA.ij u^AiJi 6J^ Li^oJiV 1^ (tjr^iut j^^aii) UsU. 

'W^ tj^^l ^ Jlkj U Ijol^ (olj^VI jJi ; 4ia^^j) phonetics 

•Uili (j^i ^J J^ c>> U J(!"''^ <^^>*-:JJ ^ytA^kJi ^_i^^L;j ^LijUijj 

^j^";/! jak.^-JI lii JUii^l ^jVlj . ^UJI c^\^-^\ -Jt general phonetics : - j.-^^- aJ^ jik, ^j (N) 



cjl^j-^VI A-k:)) ^Vl SjLc 1 (jjlf i3^ LfjiJ ^.uj-c^t SjLJLi L^Uxi) 
11 LfI-3 tiLjU^I (J[ i_j^l L^ijj ^_5-Aj < general phonetics a^LsJI 

L^jiL^-ii <2_l_i_JLAil AJuUI olj-*-aLj jJ:i-u*j!jJ( At-aJLAl tj>^ -^J 
» L o l <JI ajLc (_$j^ (particular L-oL^ 4_u^ljj aj-Aj .jjaIIDj ^a-Jaaill 

jjji jS^Q (A_ujjjjAJi AJlUI JOaj A^fc-s. ^^^ii. J-alilu ^c_lii4-a-aj \ (j'^J'*" (^^-l^- 

Sj]jALaJjVt Cilj-ual ^iir. j! Arabic phonetics «<_ij^I cj\^y^\ ^S£.-» . :yXa 
1 J...'" ^-uaLkJl 4_ujljjJ1 aJJhj ( German phonetics etc. j^[ a_ijLcJV1 jI 

\Xa ^ iJaJj .La^^ ;jj^ introspection LulAii lii^XJ! ^_^ uJ^^ "* -? 



. (^neral Phonetics : ^j_>xJI -uU^ ^^ >li^* '^^ pV^ ^jj . o j" j ^ H (j^) J^^j J.-=-» uj-^ 

- 0^- - 



oIjjVI 4_:)jj_ajj A^uL^Vi aj^^jlJIj ^^^! ^oAjj t>>jJI jjj^j 

^S j j<^^ r, ^ ULc UiUJIJ ^_j-J__^^I (^jJI 4^1 *2_L.ai3LJ! 6j>f^Vlj 

^^ ij±^ ^\jL^ dUjj dik^^ -Li^j ll=ujj ^UJI SJlUI ^Jxj L-^ljjJI 

■'e^ ijl ^ : '^ ? u',h^■^ cjf .a . ^-j .^ ^Vf 4.^-'j^l (_ ^ '■^ ^ " Ij-^j 

(^Uif ^j) ^LUI U .A_,^ J\ ,3kiJj ^^^^^ ji jU.jV! l^{Ji\ 
ij.^1 ^ Aj.jl_j^j ijiiiji ,^p_ijj ,L^!j ^ A_Lil^i ;j£, .N^ s^ ^ 

Particular phonetics is:^^^^ ^SU.^r^W Jlk; ^l j^l-^JI <> o^j ■ 
general JjU^ ^ oUUl ^> UL <^UJI <^^^l c.U.lj^l ^ 
(^jAxxijUl ^_ykxJi ^ m-Mmm ^ Ajlj JjVl ^1 U . . ^ JI Ijjj o)^ ( phonetics 

general phonetics ^Vl ^lt^,,^J I Jlk^ d5 jVu^j ,<jJ ^5ja-^!l ^!j^! 



2_L;^j j7_flJI S^^U ^ i^j^ Cjl,>c-aVt ^ ^Ij1^\ CA^^ 

6J JjLLo ol j"'a * jl (^JLiA-o <^iJ-«j Sjlii <LluIjJjI JaLiJjI O j-> . (j^J O ^ j' l 

descriptive phonetics ^^^'^..^j Lo[ olj^^VI ^AaI ^j^j^\ ^^i^LlI! ^ L^i 
^U\U A •: Q . U J JjVtj prescriptive jl normative phonetics (^jLla^ Lo[j 

Sjjj-aJLj L^-LJLaJjj olj-i^V) aIa Jj7»mi" J ^t .uJjj-aJt ( ^i^ jJ^ 3^^^ 

<GUli ^j-a u^itiJj .JjU"llj jJ'm'^'^11 ^_yi ij>*-^' W-^ J-altuJ 2_5jLu ^^^il^j 
2_LliraJI ;3£. Q-^ >J 4j( (,3-kjJI (_uJLujl ^ ^-^r^*-* '-^^ O^J"^ U' ^^ 

, u1 q"1| ■>■• 11 . ^ ij U \ ll r" jj-aj _al JU-aJ J aj:^ a jj-i^p^ ?;i-^-l-ajl IdA j^i «_t^l^! 
Jjj^" ^! (_^ ajiaJI f^ (jl L-a£ ,A ,^1 ^11 4_i^^iill A ^J) ll [y^ ?■ LiJ Vlj 
<Li i j-^ fl_J 2i i^\ 1 t< '^l I «_d_LaJ I q . A^iAtiC a /^ \^ Li <^ * 1 *■"■" ^^iJ Vj'^ ■n\ 1 ^^jai ) j jJ I 

o!,>^l ^lj-4 Jj*^' cj-^^SJj ■ diachronic ((^_^jj^Ljj» jI synchronic 

- ■\^ - 



Sj^^L^l Zj£Ji ^^-i^^jJLj .synchronic phonetics tj-aljjJUJI .-.1^ .^Vl 
diachronic ((^^^LaJI ol^^VI ^,) J.Uo ^ .i^j^l s^^) s j^^^ 
oi,^x^l ^ jl^ (^AJIj <i-il^jj| S^LiJI jja3 Jj^.Au t^dJ! phonetics 

descriptive ^-i^jJl ol^>^V) ^)) ^Jk^^j ^.^...^ jji^ ^^ _. 
g_)jUJ! t^ aj^ijO^ Cjl^Iij 'UaLijjV historical or evolutionary phonetics 

L$^As_j A_jJj_*^| JJLa^l aJjUaj i^jXj j_aj comparative phonetics 
Sjia ^> L^l^^^l ^ l4J>=^ SjijLi^ .Sj^I^I UUi ^ Ul .^>-^^s-H 







r 




L^^>uillj dLuSJj^i OU 




A 




^ 'La-a3i£ .^^ ;^ * Li^jJ^i Phonology j cfl^Li^l Phonetics 
,_,...-^. 1 ^f<^ J^ ^_pi A_ul^^j c^l u^Lu.1 oAlii.1 oU ■ ^^' ^'.r^' 

. \^j^ j^:'^ *_uj'aJi o^i ' ^.■^"'tA tj^^j f^-i^' 
L^ ^U J^ es---^^ v^'.H^ o.^.-^ 6' 1.^^^^^'j ' J^ t> "^J^^ 



. Lfjjj <i_Lll -A tjiU ^\j lSl^^j^\ ^U-.!l ^|jh\ll ^^ -.^"'6...laj 
AjjiaJLo L5fdJi.l l4J_5^ i-^tH^ (j-* Cjlj-t-aVl A„tu!jJ A^ jlj^ij M'm-^ 3-^1=^ J-^ J' 

j^ oj-^ • auditory effect ^j^a-a ^yua« jjjLj L^ actual speech events JxiJLi 

. iijLiJU! ^ 4_aJj ^^ji^! .^ii^^i ^^ l^_kjUijj V < noise s-L^j^ 
1^1 V dLjUji jj[ Phonetics ^Uk.wcwJ! ;_jjjsJi ^^jl Uj!j k_u-^! SjfJj 

^_w~iJ t^L^ Jj^ — _>:P^^' ^^^Lk^V! ! jjij . genera! phonetics jj&j j^V! 

: ^jj" wl ,j-!i"j-^Li " 



cJ^\<. jjlj Japhonetique ,_^_>iLJl ^Jk^JI V phonetics ^^^-J^ VI ; --tl H ..^^ j^ U^ t-ij^jiUij (\ 

. phonelioLie historique ; jJJa-=iJLj - i_k=j-1I Lkji=^ ~- U^S jL^ '-= jl i^AijjliJf 



. i -n i^a.. CjLsJJt (jjLi A^^piLi-a A.j^Ll A-L-ajj Oj-i-£aJI lj_^ CjjlSili-3 

<J S ^^j" ^--^t a (Lp.jJ.^jlLll) phonology j-Aj t^t^' g^k-^t Ui 

U ji j^!^! o^^l ul Ij^jjl La^lc < cjIj^VI ^_^ .±^1 ^jlll A^^:H^ 



phonologic jj-^>Jt ^1U,^JI "^ phonology t^j^J^)'! ^Jk^=^ ._u>Li j^ Lj^^j^ Jl v:?^' ( ^ 
2.:.^j\\ lsij.^\ c.UljJ! ^ : ^i^liDl ^.j=-iJI ^ ^-^Li^j 6tJi-^>J' -^ ^^1 V^ t5^' 
l^U^ c^lil ^(^ (phonetique historiqule :S jU U:.^^^ ^1 ^^ji-u'^l J^^i. ^) descriptive 

. iiiJI ^ ui^l ^L^ ; ^ ^1 ■(^.>-^l Ji^ji^l (>J^» 1^1 phonology 



p- fr ^ 

jjS (j_iJ ^^_jIiL^ <Li*=>L^j t Cjfj-t-aVI JS (g-3 <\^L£. 6Li£.Li tijjji^j L^lj 
^j-4 t_Jj^ LS"^/ -^'^^ i—lLSJ) JjS-dj j^jjJL-aJf O^-uiaJl ^1 l^^jjS jJj 

s ■" , — , 

* ^ ^ 

j^j^! iAh i^ Liiij-s Lai ( '^i^lj L^>^ cuL^ !j! 'i dij j! JLa1s.V! ) j^ 



. AAlli^ ^J^^ CjULj^ ^ 0^>^l !iA ^J^J ^-^H^ Cjf-\^ ,d^^A;i-a 
^Lst-ail [^±j^ ^ %als. Q. M jl j) <^^- "^-STi^J CjI J Ci«xJ 3j_>^ ^_^^ 

^ J^^;:^ ((J^))j «J^^» J^LLa (jr^ <(J^)) J^ ce^ ' ^^^Ui^VI 



Sj^^Li)) 4:Ua.^ ^j^ *-« j' ' phoneme ^j-ilL aj-a^ U &J<^ 

. phonetic unit ^^lAt j.,^! ! 

Li^JjLki < ^ijVi . ^h^~ j L^j^^-^ Sji^LUI J& OA^ (a^ - ivo ^^j^i 

** C- p t 

oL^_^Lfl . joiu^ jU-*i ^ lK^^-j l-fiji=^ C^j^^ Ljo^ Ci-LoJj 
L^llLolj Laj^^^-s j_a JxUL J^^^klJIj ( types of sounds o!,>*-=.VI LLa^f 
j^i dUj^j ^^ ^KJU . >i.r J! jLj^ ^> uij"\- ^1 2^J^I 
L^Ali^l j^ L^ Sj::^Ij JU Uli£^\ <^ikUI Sj^^l Ul . ^UJIj 
VI r.-* 1 ... I^^I^^Vij . allophonesji phones ^^ ^ ,„" Lo ji variants 

S^>^ <_ikiJ! <_iikJt olj^V! J <_iikUl U^ j).^^ ^j IxS J$ ^ 

^^'j^ (Jt J.>^-=^>5' (>» ^"^ • W-^ *±*^l oj^ cj^ . 2_.-.i^ti:au:^-,ti 
-h1^ lH - -^"^ uL^j ' Li-UiJI Aj^UMI old^S/t ^ JJL^I jj^Ui 



- V 



— 1 j-^jij'*'atl a . phonology Li^jJjjAJLj JAJ Laji *-S^ L« j-A ^^J-aJ! 

<L-Uj!_jJJ LujLuj! ^j-^.^A. "^ .^11 >'-^ < li i^J_^ F J-^ *J— *' '^''^ IC~^ 

f s e 

: Phonetic oppositions ^^^^^1 ijijL^jLs-aJI jl 

dJ j^ ^ U^ l\ C)jj-^l k_iJS_3^ A„j,,i')lL; i^j-ojL ^ (_gjj'Nq"]t JaiJ! 1 j_aj 

djj-aijj f(_gJ)-iiajVl Sweet OJJ-tu tj-fi ij^ Sj^-i-aJI jI-jV! ^-i A,_\\.aj^ Aj^t-tf^ 

^^1 A_ijjj-aJI pLiiJ'i/l ^_^ !iU^ dU j jjj i^j LttS Jespersen ^^ja^uj j_^j-aj! jJl 
^^' Broad Romic Alphabet ^Li oij£. ^^'j <^^ A_ii"<1 ojj^ La^^^I 

- VN - 



(IIjmjjjumj ^c'''1 '-'"^;^ ^ Ij-A (_s-* <iJLlAj (N ^ • i) phonetic Grundfragen ^^^ > 

4_jjijjl isUujVI (^>-aAJ (_yi ^2)**^' '^'J^^ ^ t^ 3^ 'J^ C^-^' C^'^^' ^"^ Jl 

s 

AAA (jJ jJajJj L-fltAJJtJ ^j-* jc-AlilJ ?T..^,'v^ f"-^^ J' *^L>^ 7^~^-J LS^ ^^■''^^y^i 

. dl jjl jjLuJI ^jj-iilil L-aUl ijij j^-l^ ' Phonetic not phonological 
^ jj>_j! j_y![ f-^^A-aj-al! ! j^ j^ de Saussure _^j^jj^ (^j ^j^ jj aJj 

i3jL^ Jj'^'j incorporeal ^jLJI^^ ^UJIj material (^jLJI i_jjLaJI 

^JjLiajj ( articulatory movements ijU\ \\j\ i^ -y] "L^j .A-sJI oL^j.aJI 

. auditory impressions cjL^^^I aifJ a_l9 ^uiH oLtLikiVl ^UJl 

^>j^j^ c5-> C->^ H '^-^^^ c^*-^' ^b^)^' '"^ o-^ f^^' (^J 

i_j ^iuVl tdJj (J-* „>^' (JAJ-JL:^) ^2hJ^^ ^UutjjJ ijjj.^. Lj^jJja.1 jI L^_^.^^ 
Jjj ^,_\-^ t ,,.j I^LS (^ jJl tj^'J^-*-^' t-SLjl-Jj-aJl JLa.j A a Mj {_^J-!l (gJjU" 11 
CjljJ-aVt Lc^^ (j^ i3:J_>^' '^4-^ -^^ -^ '^ U^ f°^ C^'iJ' aLxJI ^-fjJ! 

4_aljiJt A_u.lj Jl dJj j^jit 4 ^lUij . (phonology =) phonologic LiaJ^jJi 



- VY - 



phonetique =) phonetics td^LjjiJI ^1 Ci^ SjLt ^Laj c*jl^ ^_ylJI 
j^U. j>* v^^^ ^b^ La4l-s j^lj J^ (j-a^ii^ * L>^J^ L^i ^.>^' 

j^^j Sjj^ ^j 2:^^^' '^ V-i^J cr^ !->^ t> Jj' ^' 
^j 0'j^>J >P C)l^>^Vt ^L^ 2_^ljdJ ,^^^1 t> ^j^ialui^ L>^j^ 
Uj^ JLLa t^l di^LJI \1& t^\ jU . Boudouin de Courtenay j^^iij^j^ 
cjIj^-^^U LiLaJJI jj.^llj ( speech sounds ^^ilSJI cjIj.<-oI (jfj '^j*^ 
1^ ^> Li!ilL^!j . ^'^ lSll\ oLoK 14!^ ^hj ^i phonetic images 

p- * ^ 






Ul , ^j„^".>ll : ( parole =) speech ^ilUI ^!j*^l *^!jj ^ j^JIjJI 'J-a ■*-fi^j Lh?-jJ^I jJj JjVU 

jangeue =) a language ll^^\ UlJIj speech ^:jl£Ji (>; SJu. [j^^^-^- ... >•=) tjr^jj^ 6' J-^ iv 
ij.j>^! 4^^l ^I^JI ^.>'-^ ^ ^i^l L*l : J^L^ ^_jkUI ol^Vl ^U^ JjVlj . (U«:>JL; 



jiL! ^j:p. jJi. physio - phonetics g^^jiA^I olj-^oV! aijLj» LjjUJ! 
jj-aij psycho . phonetics (c^^.^V^ll cjIj-^-sV) ^aJi» ^11^. ,^1 ^_yjLiJ) ^_^ 

L^_±i£ i^lia' ,^^1 j_5*-aJI tdij < Cjlj-t^^ Aj\ajJI jj-u::^! 1mi\jJ ^_gJLc <id.iLC 

^U) :<lI^ ^ dJj *■ -^^'j La^ . phoneme s^jiJ! ^i (U^ JLsJl !j-& 

AjjjjJI 4_j^^]aJ (c-'iJAAJ (j! O^-^ '-* M"^ O 
B e 

(j^ iJ^^iXa o^^l (_s-^ o"^' '^ o' {J\ ' 6-*Jh' (>* *>^ ~ Petersburg 
Sjja».^l)) . ^ ^..4 Lo jl ^j^i tj^j sound jl allophone jl phone 
La^Jua 'J-^^'^ (J^ U^""^ J * CJ'^^-i-^^» ^iaJ j^_jj^jj jjj2b._j Sjjj.1^3 T 



sound ■-■ j-~1 l JjL^ ^J aJLojlLuI J--^° j-s-j^^ phoneme Ajj_ji - ti — -^i Lai .^.^iiij p^^j-Ji j^j j^j^Vl 
^jUI JLiil^i ^Ijiil u'» :'*--^ ;j^jj^ J->^ 'i'i^ iKriiszewski ,_y2-^3j^ j-a a j^-ail:; ;> j^^lj ^[ 
Ij^j JUj ^^ oiij ijl^ aJj ■((,jl .u . ^ , / ;j^ ^_jl[ 2;^jj (phone =) j^^klJl oj-oJi (>. Ulli^ Llii j^IaIJ 

- Vi - 



'il>^J^' tlH'^ 6fJ <i^lU_lj 'Li.LuiJLi OJdSJ ^a jl;\li cjL^j (j^j 

■ 3^j^^' cr^ sjj'--^' ^:iuVi aj'lI^ ^_^ (_>«^id^ i^j*.^^ ^_^ [x& [i^ys 



' i±AjJaJI (^jiJJI Ci^.JI ^ J.Ai jA^ L4J 4j<jf;n1l A^jjJI alA 

^^iKJI : sLla-oj (^j^Jl^VU speaking jl speech =^) parole aL&x*. U 
sIa^ Uj . tj;^) s-sijJ! (_ji j^i ^J^xJ) ^ joL.....J^ JaAJLj jjJalJI 
AjJ]\j t -U-uLAJf ^aJJf L^ wU^^j (a language j\ the language -) langue 

- Vo - 



^y^\ ij^iiii pK-^ Uiij j^i Iq^K'j "i/j < jki3 V 4^ij ^ <ia^i 

^ t3:L>^iU ^_^L«Vl t3kUI t^L^ aJlUI ^L^ Of^ i3tL>^' '^j 
6^ ob ' '^'•^ LS^ ^^ '->*^' C5-3^^ ^c^ "^1 ' linguistics liHI ^ t> 

.L4^L^jij JkJI ^L^i ol£^ ^ >lii ^"^^ ^ lMW ^>^1 
cjL^>Ji alA (>t 5^Li_d S^lJJI A-jJlj-fJI oLjJ-jUl i^^^^ L^^ 

the linguisitic consiousness (^jilll (_y^j^' j' jj^^' t^ ,>^^^ ij-^^^ 



. LgJij AJdJIj oLaJlll A_i^^Ui differentia! 

:J^ljV) 4_a,jj-JI fila j!jj J^l Trubetszkoy ^sj^^^jj^ SjUaj jl 

( -V Kt^ Ujl£. m1>11j 2LiAA=JI ^ tj^-^y 3^^ ^ f^ ciijUjJU) tj| 

Jakobson aj'"j'?:>^q t5J^^-H - ^ ' jW^' Ualjj t> ^i^iU^^^I Jjl 
^1 JjVj tjl^j ''' (Karcevskij d^'J<. ^I^j) Karcewski j^l...iA.«j^j 

^V! <I^ ^^j (S^ro) ArJeitungzu Phonologischen Beschreibungen 
^jjj (^ ^f^) Grundzuge der Phonologic : Cj^j^ <Jilj j^ jJ^ ^^ JJ! 
Sj Ju tjUj Principes de Phonoiogie . ^Lj S M ^ <1^ -i^ja^^I JJ 

. ^jLlJl i:u j_^ t^U'^ ^ .il£ t^dii ^_^UJ1 (5^! j^>A^i 






, Prague Schoo! of linguistics l^jiiW ^U ^j-i^ 6'^' lj^ ^>^ tr^' ^j-^' ^^^ 6:!^ tP ^S^ 



(j-a a£.j-11 c5^-^ aLoJI Ji.-^'flll lj_a Ag5^ aJ — iiUj:S a g '^ ^ jj_. ^ tS" ^11 

,<UViiJI ^l^r j_S Sj^j-^JkAj) 0^:>.^i..ll !_is,L{=o ^jLaJq) y^jLs! ^VV^ ^2>-® 
j__j^aj-^^^ ;ijj-\. I <LaJJI aIc pj^^^iJ <La_iJ^ *i^^Jjia (j-*^ Ija-A-alj aL^VI 

s 



— ^jJjIj H (3:JJJI liilSjl 0^=^ JLocl j_yi <iJi=Jll ^_yl^ <JjjLaJlj 

^iUlui^ 5_LuljaJI ^j-a LaUaJ tiLjLjjiJ) Ja^=^ /ji:^. ^^^ . grammar (j£.!^l 



See, Ullmann, The Principles of Semantics; pp. 29-30 , 36{S^ 

- VA- 



aJUJI J-ii ^j_o La!j ^_^! lillj 4jiu3 a^_>ilj 4iiil J[^>kli j^i. Vi J-& t>*ijla. 

jj^--^'" Sji^ ^jiJJI *_u^_^i JJ^jklj -CiLs ^LiijV! jlc ^jjill! isUiill! 
. ^j j,^\f ^ uj^ ^'^^ i^,>^' V^^' oi ■ dichotomy AjjLUJI 
^JLkU! j.j.j'i"!! UaJfeLaxu La jl t j-^l t U^l^i . o l,_^~<-=> V I i Ua^a^i 
I=_i3j^ _>^ (^1 - AJlli La^ Jj'^b content ^j"^ ^Wj expression 

. *^* linguistic structure (^jilH >..,u^j3Ji oj^^ 

j^jjj iJJj-^' ^,^^ (_r^ J~t^J^ CS'^ 'j^-h' U^*^' cdlljl ^ LaLaJ ijilj 

^j — .^|]-'a'>l A_a ^UuJ)/l a.!il£J! a^jUIj ^jJjLUI (j| :J,>^ . (SJ^^ 



fJc j_jjl Ji.j^ : : j-:h ) See, Gleason, An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics, p. 2, II, 239 (S^ 



J ■ ^ a H Ijjft ''^J-U- ic-Jj C^JJ! ,_^LwjVi j2)i La^ i jj_LtujldJl ^ ^^±jS, (j-3 iLliLi^ 

. ^ >" i-^ aII ^2>-1-l4j^IJJ! 

' - - ' . -^ . 

j^ AjiJJij < LfJ bj^j.^ jl Ji* Aj! AjtLajaJJ A_iJ j^ !il«=tiLa i Mm. ^J^ 

^^^£_aj Mj 5 a_«Q^lij ^lj-11 ^^ Loi .^LcLaj^l aJlIj j,^' aj_L \ ^^ sign's 

6J_A u-LjLJss /j_C i^fiJuSJ! jI J-J-i-SJiJi 9 ■-. J U \ " I I A_jjL-a s i-A-^i. " t ^-_4l 






(^jJi. ajLilil ^jjj — ^JLLII ^ oljj-^VI i^i i^ O^ jHj ^j'^a'll ^jl^t- 
Sjjj-(-<aJI 2JL=i. ^_j-Lc dJ j j-u<=l1-J l-ajLa I /^ ,j '\ \ \ J .^'a H ^j_^ ^V /jL£ 

.^^i«.VI (_5^ La-AJi^l jLalclj (jAjljj La.^.iAjLJ La^JaLpj! 
iLxuiS I (ilpLJjij! (2):i-J^ *^-^:H ^-^^' '~i^_j^ ■iwax.iaJ LL=k,^^^lill OAJ [3tL>^ 

S f s 

(Functional Phonetics «cj!j.l^V) *_ijUij ale: j! ^^^i^^jj! cjIj-^VI ^w 

J^ (5JjlB.Tranka((LlJ^» j^ dUj <S_lujj^! iOJi Jl^j jLi^ ^^ j^lj 

: ^]jUiJ! I j^ j^ 

L^-SjjJa ^ r-jjl3j «Lijjj^l Sjj-i-oJt (j-® '^-^IjjJ' Ij-ij L*di£» 



L^JUii; ^ CjjLluj Sj^>^waJ! ^j^t^_^} ^ <Sj^i 6 J-A < Lflj^ O J:i.! 1 J[ L-at 
JLs^ j_^ 1 (] MiV^ jVt LfJl-S olj-c^liU ^-UtiljJI 6j_^^) J[ Cj1.-oj (_P^ 

, !!& L^^j t^ L&jL^I t>i ^! jdAJ Lh!'^' ^^^' t^ 3^^=^ <u,A^ 
S .1 .t->."l l i^jjLwjljjj ^Li-S-ijJalJl ft^LcLc) Ldl . 2_sjj^i A.j_paJJl <^.s.,LiJI 

" s e .'11 

LAfuAxj ^;_jj-iJ-sJI JoLiJji ^^^Ic {-MS^\j aJjV! ^^^jJl ^j-iJii oij^^!lU 

^J]a^..o^i ?r J ,,^1 jjj ^^^I^ i L_a_o A_jij.iiajj ^^>-li^ 6j^j-*-a-j ^JA£._j-iJ! 

j3jj L^L-a Li^44J| SjLt.)U LiJL^ aJ-^j ((oij-^VI ^iJ-£)> phonetics 

See Josef Vachek, The Linguistic School of Prague, p. 42. ( \ ) 

-AT - 



. l_*--^jlj'>'atl phonology 

6 

^ifi, jLtuj L^J«_o (3^' *-a tdjj (_i ^^jiuiJj . <LiJj.<-<aJl oLiu'jJj' ,^ JLa£.! 

4_j fljJJI cijLluIjjJI ^ ■•" jj^^ ^ J J '^-l 3-^_Lui_a 1 -fi aI^L^j < *j>^ Laa^I£ 

■fi li t 

<^L.u-aJ La_ljjjj Ajjlii l^^jJjiaJ oj^ (j' ~ tiuJ:=t i^JaJ j^i-iAJ »_uti;a»J 

jA\ ^J^\ L4J_^^i Jl ^Jl toil LgJUL^I JIj AXjj^l Li^^jlUI 



J'-^qH a.A£. ^_ylj (^J.H ^_^UuV! i_i^L-3 ^^a^^^^ i_^j Jji c-ii_>kJt ^j 

( SLuMJjAJL) phonetique =) phonetics tiUiLj^) ^jjj 3j^ ~ ^ ^j^^ ~ 

J^ ^/^-,^-=^_.j , (a^.».')j^Li phonologie — ) phonology L^jJjliJ! ^j 

: ^Ji\sl\ ^^1 ^_5-i£. C^J ^IjJI (>s 6:^^ ^>^ La^I^ J^ij 

L__o! . (Linguistique — ) Linguistics IJJJI ^J-c ^^--^ 4.5-^^' £,j-^ J-*J 
r- Ij4 ^j J-a C^^ uAll^ _h!^>^ C5-* 6' ^^ cp-^*-^J ■ ^^' (P^i'oie =) speech 

^Ji! jit d-ijU^i JjU^ ((id-^' Lf-^^' ^^) ^-^^ We-^J^' —'^ 

See, de Saussurc. Course in General Linguislics, p. 33 (a-Tj^Is.:.^^! i-a^jiJI (n) 



Ll!^l Lj-s.-^^ o)^>^Vl ^>iJ) ^ ^^^ Ut-^j^' ^-^J ol 



Ul ^L^l oL^>^ J^U^ C5J^-^ ^*^ ' o^^ ^ ~ *^^^ 
^,,...n ^ULaVL iUu. U jl ,_^.«^ tjr^^'j articulatory movements 
,J^ U^ Ue^^>^* J^J J-=^ ol '^^=^1 c>J auditory impression 



^j . A_j^^.AxJI A_i^lljl Jl SjLLVI Jj^ <^:iKJl U^Jxx. ^ ^tj-M ^;^lj 



-Ut-Luj! 



* c t 

• O:?^^' u j"^? i_s-^ lj j)' . ^^A 6^^ ^^j <lj_i ijjiJl ^<-i-L.ajj . ^JAwjjIjJI 

. ^-iJJI frLolc (j-0 6uAJ UuLswa Lis fl^ 



jj.i=JLJl) L^^ u^j^'^h ■ ' '■!? " ' " j ^ :^j^"i' l -u^!^ Aji^y^ (_pi*Ai .l^^l Ul , ^y^i ^ 



- AA- 



Species Lai ^... La jl i:i>lj::^jJI ^j-* Lc'^' j' UaLaJl L^_L^j_i olj-^-aVI 
1-tiJI ^U\ll \ mS^ V 4_ij^^j-gJ) IsLajVl ^ a=i.l (j-AJ (2>^ t— tJ'ij o*^J 

jJ| 'i-uiij ^^j^L«jj_«j (^a \ g ) '**'j J-i — olj-t^^— J I— s ,. j 'i f^" M j j-jj..- -% , " , 1 1 

u_SjaXi jjl "^J "i^ "^J-^ - ^ q1"-^.-a oLaJ ^ A_a J l-i \ ^ ^-iA^ilS (JjAi^iLu jj^ 
j..,^0 Jj ii^ 45-i^lj J-**^' Jjl 'l^.iu^j C^J^I i^J-t-^l (^_^>iilll JJJJiJLlI ^J>lii 

S j j,A-9 U Lg-io-i^Lj 1^ 3j-^"^'^^^ aI^I^I ciilj-i^) <j^!jj (^^-li. Lij^^^p-Ll! 



-AY- 



4>1a tjLi 6j^Ljj Li^jJ^^liji jLLI |_ji 4j!iKiL^j syllable ^ Uq^ll A'^qLLa 
j^^ Lajlr. , 4^j.4^l Species iaLajVI jl cjlj^j-il Li^^jJi ^LaJI 

cjL&^jiJI jl S^"j.^ll cjIj^jJLs . combinatory phonology ((J.uaI-=JI 

^t^ (^jJl ^!> j-^i i (JLluJI c_j...j.a^,..^ A M"\.a ljj-t-<s J-i-saXJI a^II^I ^ ^~JS 
a j_& jjLau-i Laj LaLj LLuajjI K ) " j-^ j-AIj-hJI jI jj. r^ll aj_J&j .A ,j fl 



. ov-o'\^^ jjUji (\; 



-.lilUI U^jJ^ (jU < 4JLL11 ol>-oV L^UJI of^lj-SJl ^>i f>^ 

J \ g phonetics of juncture jl combinatory phonetics <(J .^"^1 ! ^liHJ! 
jl , U-^jtj\'<i11j cdijU^I C^, U«.U Uj^ bS^jk ^ LriJ-5' ^^i-^j' 
_^(^| ji ,^,^1 3i>iJl LUiL» J^^ ^u-^u^ L^ J^-^ t^ J^-i^ 
\ ^ .hr.- A^ij^l alA i=U:» (j-^ u* ^-^ ■ Pi'osodic features ((A^J^^^oJI 
secondary 2_j_^LaJ1 oUa^^Lj ^^L^j^VI a.xxuj^ l^ a^^UJI Cj^>^I 
,^.XyJl 3ji U oUh^ j! ^.Hti^j^' ^ oUa:^! jl phonemes 

. ^^^ supraseginental phonemes 

J'^oL^H^I ^ :phonemics llu^ Oi^' f-""^' ^'^ ^^J^tJ^*^' JoUjV! 

-i«\ ,i '- TA . VI - TY ^ JjLJt ^^1 ((ji-j- t5-J t^b" *^>^ ij^ W-?J>^' t^^ cf^ t^) 



'LiJi^LiJI jj^ 3j^'*^^^ ^!il^l olj-i-al S_ujljJ jJr. (U^^jilj) A aa A ^ .-^ 

■ chH^^- ''^ 6' (S^ C5^' Gray 45l,>=». A_a_^4J;,i 
. mechanical jl physiological ^<^'.Kj^ jl , (^j-J^t : La_Aj^! 

. psychological jl non- mechanical j^^IajL^^ j! ^^ : La^Uj 
^_^! AJiJ) ^jj^ ^ LfiiLi: S_ijlJa ^\j^ L^ ^j UJJI ^ ^j^LliJ! al^j 

j-4 U-a iJJJ ^j-^AaJI ^_iJUJU jj^^5/ill jl ( S fljU; .11 S:^- j.^l i i^lj^Vl 






L« CoUj ^J.,<.r W ^^) c.!,>^!iU Aj-^^UJI oLculjdJI ^^ ^3^ A-oU-j 
di^! J.«l4 ^Oj J^J^ U 4hL^J^' 6^ L^^ ur^ ' (->i^J^ C^J lM 

J^LsjiJi jLLi[ [^ tj"^' J^Ai '-^ Jn^-^ phonetics liLjU^^i ^^L$ 

ijj_jAi iuMjSAJ j-^J^ J^h'^ '^J-^ Jj*^' f»-AJjlj JLa-C-l ^^ Uqj ?'^ i^ 

6 



UldJ j5 (lj "l-% \[ =) aLJl Ij^ ^_^ lljt f^a fi^^l (_5-i^» : ^ f-^ . fSJj^^ 

f^ ^JJ-^ cl>^ L>^^~^ ^^ t_S-^ ^VaJJ Li^^^yii ^-Ikj-a-aJI JLaJi"...! ^ 
^__)*ijJ^ ( ^^^Jfb-jjLj aIc <jJ_i1=>JVI LiSk. jj jJAJ I ^j'y . Lo ?-^ [j-a LjJ JNj l .-i-^ , 

A_a 1 . 'lJ . ru . A J — SjLsJI (^^ La^ — Li^J . O-^ ill ^^Ll-s i^ LLoljjI-a L:»_^_l-s 

tjj-o j-^"..n tl)jJJ! idUj! ^j-li. Ljj_i_£ (liL-J^j-s) phonetics *■ JU.^. H . 
U=*.^__jlkJl ij\S IjU'^'Lautlehre J phonetik , iaphoneuque c^UJisu-ia-aJi 

Ji^^jlaJt Ij^ ^_^ '-i>-«j ^^-^j - ^_5-l*^! !j-4 t_yia-ij phonetics i '.^ lU.^^ 
^^^A£. L^_ii ^j ^_^) 2jJLj-JI liilj j_^| Ijil M.'ij aj ^s4JLi < U-^jlj'.allj 

.^^jU a^^JAi. Lax, JaIlu-o 0.:>. i 1 1 ^ i_jj.*AJ l.-a^ \m -S^^j JS ^j-^j--^-^" 



,_s-ai«j La Lfji Jijj iij.=^ J-aiiilj 2-"j' i^ljj t^^Aij (_5JJ) phonetics *■- lU.^^ll ,_;jji--'.Vi -jj 'a ill 

. synchronic ^.Ik^^aJJ Ci^-ji; d^^l^jliJIuj 



^ ojJi^U U_aj . ijuj\J\ 4_i ^^ ti^JJI c^l ^^j lj{^\ l^L^ 

■ j^^' aj'^ dh^^' ^^' J^^-'*^ Ls^ -^.^^H ,>"^ (c^-i^' 
.<^' Uolli^ Ui3> U^ o^I ^l:ii (^5j .tu^ . ^3^li jL^lj A^^lj^ 



, \ i ij-=> i>;UJI t^->^' ■ '^->^ 



i \ 



. ^^^ functional or systemic phonetics 

di ^1 Jj < I^ U^^^^^U (_5-i^ U AJJjjIj j^ J^mj (_y^j SJiJJ) ^ 

SjLJI 2-*^^ ^_PaaJ) j^j pure or narrow phonetics iJj^AJI ^^Ix-JU 

o! ■ ^^Lh^^U SH^J^,^:^^*^' ^1^1 (> IqIjU'j 1(31j;..m"j 2_u^^x^! 
( ^.i^jJ! iofj oS^^^^VI ^Ijj ^^>^ tjj-^' l^yJj>-aJI Ij^J .^U"t '.J a II J^^ 



- ^ ^^ ^LJI ^j-a]l : u-JJJJ (^, 



j^uAA CM ojM phonetics ((Cjlj^^*i^l ^^£.)^) jJn < ^^^ ^^ f-^W '-*-^ 

phonetics collects the row material and phonology coocks it 
j_yJI 1 o^j^j ^i i g-:^: Lija.jJ^^ij ^UJi SaUJi ^-a^-j ^U^l 

<CLLiiijj ({Cl)ta;i.j-li Ll=w^j^)> j-A ^JA£:^I t^jJ-A a^l .^jjl. ^^ i^ ^^ 

^j classes J\ units olj^^!iU LLLoJl \ q^'^ j-? ofj^-a*^! t_y^ o^H^! 
La ^ jl i vowels (:i>l^,>=iJlj consonants Sj^L^i cj\j^^^S ^j-^t^ 

- ^0 - 



tjA^ Ja£ (Jjkl}\ (j*ijdJI ^Lj-0 ^ ((A_iujLujVI)) oLa^^l 1 (j_.1r JIU > 

f- p. 

j_asljJlJ| Lj^jJj_Lfl)) (_>ul^jj ^^H'-wj La j-fi j_5_iL±JI f^j-iJl Ldl 

Vj . ^'* prosodic phonology ((^^^^.-^1 J>j^kLll L^^^h j] ahr^jLl^l 

s 

V j_yijl 4_ij^^^l j^l^jlill (^ dJ J jjx. |_pi ajVmHj Sj"j,^il J^^l^lj 

j-^fj-llJij 4_4j;^^_t^l i:i(lj_3.jJLs . aj_A LllJLa. ^^^ l_a_$ ( Sa-a-lj S i U •;. 

polysystemic «oJiJV! joaJ Ijj-*)) 4_il£. ^^^jlikj ^jJl «4lJl IIaj 
jjA£,^^l J^j^ <i^:sJLa-£. 1^ ^L^i^^VI iLaJiV jllJI AjLlaj f^Ls*. principle 



. Lsjxj Laj \ aV |_pa < jjLJi j-9*j^l : ij^jj (V) 



. monosystemic principle <(A_aJijV! 
: ^^Liiji o^j^^ (j^^^' ^*-^i_H t^.^^^^J 

c>-l4-JI u^^l u- <^L^ J^ Li^ ^^^ c^*^' ''^^^ *-"' 
I j-t-. -. 1 ci.Ljl^L^ u^^. l^ ^.^' oLc«ljjU ^ jjl^'H ^UJL^ 

^j jC-^ l L^\ ^ - <^LJ ^ - C^j^^ ^^^ 6^^' .>:^^ 



SjUI ^^.o^ JjVt jL JiVl ^ l^^lsA^l l^\^l\ c>^Vl ^> U^j^i 
^^^L^jj , JA^tiiJIj jjl^'^'H l^JuAisj (5 JJt ^LUI ^1 Lf^^j ^j^l 

^^jjIa ?i-^>i Ji*^ W^ a.^Ll^^ Ht^J tlhhJ>^' ^*^M^ u'jt^ 

ajjU\ jji La^lj < linguistics (j^^^Ut ^^j' ^ ^*) - ^-iUl f^ t>^ ^j^ o^ 
linguistic a^LiiJI ^^)) ^ ,M^ \jl\L\ U (jl^^ lj>^ L^^j ' ^^=^^j 
^j jj c^l a- C5>^-- ^ f^>^ c^ L^jJ^l ^' sciences 

- ^v- 



. Ua^ F^^ ^LuaAJ O-S^I 












l^^ZUaU . olj-^*^S ^Ijoi ^;^3Ti-*^ 6:^-6^* u ^i ' ^^ " Sjj>*^ ~ 
^ U^j i^ }^l^ l ^^, jjUJS jaUiII t.>ulAj - ^:-f^j - J^=^5 oUl^ 



' --u 



S^^^t) phoneme ((^^i» j-a ^Vl ^j . ^~^^l^ o^5 ^j^^^^ (^j 

: S_L^^i i, j^ ^ A_a4^ jj-fil Ij^iU U^l'i UU . oi,^^^'^! 



^ oj^lJIj language ((4JlUI» JaIsJI j1^\ dJ J ^_yj U^ < ^^^^jnUu^ 
^L^jj^VI (^jijjiiJI ^.iiJ ((Aj^^iill oLxuljjJI Jj-^'iU)) Li,alsJ! oLli-Jl 

. ' Bloomfield jLi-ojij 

c e S f 



Outline of linguistic «t5>UI J,lL=jlJ! ^ :^^,) ^juJI p^ ,11 dJj ^ dJ^S j^LJ)^ i.U:;V! lis (\; 
phonemics) ^lU . ^.I ! ^^^UaI^ L^I j^Vi h,li. . Tragerj Bloch^j^.^j djL "Lo^L^ Analysis 
. (jji-JI AJ^i— =4 — i-uj^^t SjijJl) phoneme ^ Voj (S^iIj.^II r>l,i-vjJI -1^ 



L^_i^!j^ J^i^t^li (^jLiJt L^L=^ i>a olj-*-o*^i ^il^ t LaVjI 
cd-uljjUl ;5i!ilUI ^j:-jj^, pure phonetics ((i_sj^l ^LijUj-aJi)) jl ((^3^^! 

practical phonetics <(^_^_UaJI c:jlj.t^VI ^)) j-A sLa^ La ^s^^aJsj ^ S^^kiJI 

Aj^if iL^ o^ ~ J^ '-^ t3^ t^ j^j -■^^ ^ Lf-'^' ^^' ''^J 

■ tyj SjLf-3 j-4 L^b 

^ (_fi=«-aiJ s^j-c^ oi.A^j U^^>j '-^b ~ ^Wjh^^j <4ik:» - ^jUJi 

. ^jUJl IIa ^ ^ o' V^^ i^-^' 3^^' ur^^' &^' LS-*J 



l^ cjULi^l o^^ ^^^A^VI ^lU.^o JI !jji ^M-^"nij ^ Jj < phonetics 
\1& j^^ L^j . phonology aL^^^^l,) ^\U.^^\\ Lijlj^ ^j^^ J^ 



' AAJJI sA^. .'j^ i'>iiJL V ifr'va. U-la. 



- ^l^^VI die <ljd=JI 

olj^jJl ^ =) phonemics j^Ji=u-=a^l J-ajO^! a_U.j^) aJU ^^ii 
JLaaJLuV} la^ ^j . (a^j^I Sj^jJ! =) phoneme ^>a Vjj (d^- j.^U 

!j-a jUl^l iiiJj (^i: ^^4li U^ . djljjj-a^j <Uol^ J^ Lilt OjL^ j^^ 

^1 LjjAiliJ! oUIU..:^! Ah ^\jj ^ ^_j^ (^dJ! J^id^l ^ak.^^! 



See, Bloomfield, Languge, pp. 64-79, 93, 27, 137-B8 , {\; 



^ 

. segnenal phonemes 4j m<^1 
al ^^;X ^" H ji_i.iL oLa_i_Jj_iJ! ^1 suprasegiTiental phonemes L^-J-c lj_Ll_L>l 

,«UulJ ujJ^,^>lJ! (^ *^ir^ '■^^J-'**:H LJ^' ,>^'j^' ''^ ij-* '^'^ LT^l '-^J * .^jaMllj 

primary ((4j_<^L«*Vi oLa4Jj_LJ!» ^^-^-^ Jj*^' £.^5^' oL a_ijj_3 cuLS jjj 

oLaAJjiiU ^_^-a^ LT*^' L-^^ CjLfioj^sj . <ijLuJi 4-l^j-Jl ^ phonemes 

. secondary jl marginal phonemes ^.uu^LgJI j\ S^jjJilUI 

iil^lj__^! j-i cj^^j^j (±i__p>_iji ojjiaj lillaS <u.=i.j^) &,sj^ i^3 

Laic jL-a Ji J_J>iJl a^ O-a li*^ u' U^=^ Lf-^ ^ 'll"-^ a JI ^ijjJLi 

^J| Lfjjjli ^jaUj Lajjj ( ;_j.u^jiJ (5__^a-iJi JL^^! ^_^ V ^^^j^jloJI a^ij 

,«™a_uJl ■_■ J ^ *" 7^ ^Lc j_5 L^ OLaJLtuVLi i ^j-i-l <-^t .in'J oVl -^ -ft 



"^ 1 0£.j_£j^ C)__^^2>^i Cj^^j^ siJjjii l_;oj_oi j_. 



?-^l t j^Jj . morphonology — j^^-^l ajj.r^; — jl morpho phonology 
. j ^A^ VI AxuVI IXa o=>>3 ^Ijj <Lcuja-a L^jjLj ^^^j5 jj^^ o^a^iJI ij-^ 

■ La4-J$ i3-**^b ^>^' 

jl ^j'>jailj ^"j.^li ._.j'\j"ll ^ _>iill! '^'■^^' Pj^' '"^ ^'-M^JJ 

(_^^>a_j La ■ ^'-^jj JUj j^i . moiphemes A_ii^^^l ol j^jJJ d^j^s^jJ^^laJI 

t!^ ■■■ A-^ 11 f LaaoVI ijJi [UU] dJj^^ 0,>^ Lg \\ Ij < J-oiSwA j^=fc-J |_S 

e 

^jj^_^ j-^Vi ujlc.' Jlj Lai i oLaAJj-aJI *:>-Lcj tiL-J Lj jiJ I < olj-i^V! (_5-Cji 
j2>J— E.J-S L_a_ajjCj < A_a_JJI A-li ^! 1 3i_o La.^_liuAJ ia__JjJI Ij — & j-AI H-a 

c 
^1 Jj_aJ ^^ <ULUt 2LLi.j-aJ) dh J^^J LhH (1^ '^LIa ^jI (_^ 

J-aluij Laj[ liUjLijiJI ^j! dJjluJI Ijjft ^ f^,>^ 'M-r^JJ • LiJi^jJjj r.i'qll 
jjj-i A_i^LaJ! Sj-S wU^Lj (c^ "■ ^^_j;ii-S — f^J-^' fr'^j-'^ J-*-^ ' '^ J ^J 

- \*1 ~ 



^i jj^ . ^'^ «oUh^I ^)) J^=^I ^j-'^^l c^i^J-^"^' o^ c^ 
j! Lj^UJI oUo^^U)) ^UJI ^^! V^^u^ u' ^-^ ' Jj'*^' L^' 

LIajI jSi; L«j A Manual of Phonology : Jjj^I -i^^ ^ Hokett i,c:^^» C^^JJ\ *'^> i> (M 
.Phonemics jw,Vl ^ Lli_pju. , Phonology ,(Ua.^jlJ» ^iKr^J I Jji; ^ Martiner (,j_^jL.» ^ji 

. Phonematics j-a jJk^^a-JI ^^jSj t^^l i_*a.ijJI 



j^^jj ^llLsJI L^ ^^glsL4 ^ialiJl Ah . 6Jl12>^ <^i^i^!j' 'Sijj.i.^ L^-o (jj^ll 



( <G_c Uj>^ u^-J liTiguistics AjJJI ale. ^ Jo".--" pjs tdAjUjiJI 

Q asJ 1 j_i Lx! I j_jA< A^.U L-oS ( La P- jp /j_o ij Lu^ la Ja LiJ ^ 1 I ^ g '' ' ^ A uS /j la 
j^^ (Lt-^) C;LaaJ,J-SJ! dj£. ajjiaj a) ' J"^ J 'j'' '"'' La) ( (J^V! Jj-a Sj£.Luj-aJl a 

. A_3t_4Uua J_j-d j-ujLwjI ^j^^J ' '^JujI ^j£, ?• jj^ d2„l 

p-LHIujU t the language <iJJIj speech 3^^=^^' a,!il^) ^^jxi 3:3^_>lliU 

(LujIj A^il^l ,j-^j <L£j-t^j-a ^^i j-^ it:iVj|^ jlc <AJJI ^di. j_!3 i^LiJ Lj j_sJ ) 

Jj . ?-Ljj_Lkj!j L^jjjjj,»^ilS ^.j__^ j^ ^j-^ ^-^tJ^j *-^j «^>^j 



^^1 (^ - UUI jJ^^ Lifli^iUj Li^^^lj 4uUjAJl ^jj Jl*^ 



il^ (> central ^J^^ jl ^^^U! ^^ ^ U^^^) U) peripheral 
aijS &.^ J^H^j ^ ^^^LH*''^^ «C^j^)) t^U' '-^ jl-^f (>J ■ fl^' 






|J"*^J/ (3-^^'j ' LT^J-*^' -— lj^>J' L>*^J'^ (ajlc ■v^t'^j'all jl Lp^jJjJliJL 



tjiJijj generative phonology 4-jj_Jj_iJ( Lj^jJjJJJI JL^j pI^j 
f',^^^ oIj ' phonology (cL^^^piJl^j phonetics a^iUsLjjiJI)) /jj-.IU,^^ll 

.t-Jjj^-o ^ La j_jlc. ^^^ ^ . ^ .ojiuj j^l 4_i j MU J l generative grammar <{^ jjJ^t 
i phonetic theory X^^j^ ^J^ ^' u' CjJjj^ ■ ^J^\ Li^UJI ^^ ^jb 
. ^^jUmjV! jjx. ^^ialJI jL^ (^ jd^uLsJJ noise p-L^joJs XA ^IjJ — ^ 



. ^.ill^fcat ^Uilt 4^ Linguistically significant 
. a particular language 



lofj oi^^Vl tlj^ <a universal phonetics ^Is tj)^ (Ufi lU^^^ Jj^^'j 

. social ^*-i-£.' 



(_^jJ! universal iventory j^^UJ) ja^^jJI 'j-a t> l^I^l^ oaI^ ^l ^^1^ 

<■ natural generative phonology aljaJjlJl Lj^>JjJLUS)) ^Ljj 

systematic ^Lkl c^j^>4^ J^^l^j ^ Systematic phonetic representation 

. phonological representation 

J ^^U---. (t) i^UJ! ^UJi \^- S^lj JU ^Vl ^^S !:^_jj 
their L^I^^^l fi^ (_^ a^CL^^i CjUI^) ^^ (i^^Vlj jU^^^l bj^j ^J^j^^l^^ 
. phonological stucture 4_ij^jJjJiiJl ifi^ ^^J phonetics 



a_i1jJI j_^i ^>klJLj (iUjj ( U3j^ ',>:^^^ formative elements a-^il^ 4_KikAJ! 

4_!jij_ikJ! Sjol^! •■ h'^j j_gJ[ LijLj j_^^«-t"j. La^ < surface structure ^j--^---n 
<IiJ j_^ ^^j.!^! ^UdJJI A ^ fl J I (5_iJJ! ^! Lf^JJLaj (_5^l competence 

deep oij-<-fi'!iU A-Li-a^l ^jAaJI i=u^ f>^ (generative gramar (^jjAj2]\ 
dUaj (_^j ' j_p.aiJ! 3,5^^^^ ;_y^ ^JIaI^I 4_i-sia.uJl i-Aj-JLi structure 
:Phonologica! ^^^.-jJ^ls j^lj phonetic ^j^-^ ^Lkj J_;*^--" (j-o 1 '■ '>^ ^" 
^ jjLUI ^^ilaJi tjjj>=^' (J^ LT^^b J^Li ^jkl^JI Jioj JjVS 

. universal phonetic theory lu*)!^ 5Li5j^ 

f *- 

: (g^L^ La^ Jj^ Mj LfflS ( <Li^^! 6j^ ^AAjJaj L^-ittaJ Ciii-uj Ls^^ (SJ^^^ 

s 



6^ . ^^>A£.j^l t^^ 2r^^ aJ^VI o^jia^l t^ii-*^ ^>^ bj^^ l^^U^) 

lJiJJ^;^^ JjU^j 4_J_a_iJ! 4 J ^ U.1J1 d)!j-2-°^l t>= C^' (lhH-^J-^* 
^j^AJJ! p^I,9 ,(jl-a-aJ! CjSj 2_ij^^j^l wid^^t idij 



6 



. LlUU! aJ^Uisi! dji j^*^! u^^ tj^ ^^*^' "^^' a2i3i ^ij i ^^i^s 
j! phoneme <(^jiJl)) l^ oj^^ ^ H*^' 6:i^-i^J^' f ^'^ 6^ J^ 

. j_Jjlli i3:i_>l=4 4ijiaJ-s jLjI j^l A^laJi __^i^llsJl ^j^ 



,jLL7l jdsJ fejj^)^>iaj "^-f^-j dJUi^j 



jl ^ulJIj i LijLJj Lfjj^^^ ^ olj.<-=»V! j_^ Ji^I^j substance I4J 

''^-^'■^J cr^-^-r; J-*J ' context JL=iJI LiUi-u'j ' structure uj^j-IJ I 

.A_L^I ^ Ao^^UJI olj^V)j ^j^Lj 

linguistic sciences aXhSW ^_^r, ^ bjAuj j^lj A£. jUat ^J L^ -..;.'.- 

*i_^fja_i ^j-Lj (^ jJl Lai < phonetics dljJLjjAJi j_a ^L-iJ,^^.<^( SjLaJI 
^u-stj linguistics «^i_lJI ^)) <A: IjSlUI I .^^ a La_d (3j>i.V! ^j^LJI 

J£.i^l ^ : j_^ <^^ oU^I-ui-a A"^" ^a^Al3 ^^i^Vl IIAj < J^_^AaJI 

. JLaJi 3'-:^^ ^-»-^' ^j 2-iiA£. j^ ,>:i^'^i 'j-A jJA'tjj Semantics 



IJ4JJ . 6j-^ll£j (^,*iI3' v^J^' ^^ L5^ J*^^^ f^j LU:! j_yi <iiJI 
aj£,j *iL:;Uj:iJI t>s J^ ^[ ^jiJi p^j^ Si^ U^jJ,_^lfiJl ^ ' " '^ u-u-uJI 
. iLa U4^ 0^1 jU=[ ^ -ui o^! o^^b «iJjLi^ J^L^j ' <^^ 

^U: Jl J^ o' Lli 6^ '^iX^' 6^ ^^' *^ ^''^ c^ '^J 

(2jLjj^ Lm-^ 2r«Jt j! Jj^^Lj U_d Llaj *s^ j-ala-*j ^^-^.U^slj 
cJji - 1 Jl U^ 'isj^^^ oLjjl.*x^l j_^ *jiiJI A^lj J Sj^^^I (_5-1j'^1 

6J4i . (2jJJl ^jit ^ L^^ t^j) W^^ c:.^! ^^>^ ^ (^' 



4^J.a£. A-j^ ^'J^^ i^ ^ Cj-m^j i i_SJ^j '^J-i JjJiiu^ jgjj)^! J^i-v'H 
.(^j^^i 4j j3 alii Cj l-J_j^Lu-aJ I ig^ <Jj ^c-jLIj , J! ^ ~^' ' "'» aj-^&oj iJ La 



JjJLsJjji La_^_i^ L^^i_iJ! 3j-*^^ 1 ^ g ^ ^ ' '' -^ ' ^-^1 -^ |l j_j=i >jeJ! -^ 't e. — S 
aJ i ^^Sj"LJj-3 ijj 1-v" J !jj-j JA5 ( Cjij-i-£s^ j_L^^^-ajS iJ^ilsoJl al£. — Y 

e — 

. ^ljU-% 11 ^j^ La^^jAiJ 6d^.A_a Sj)U-V. (j.i^ o' J-1^ "^J * i3^_>^^ is^ 

, La-a Lj^&,^jA^j L^S-IjLj^^ .• ^^j-aJlj ^j^^jj.^! (j*>jjJ' 



^3j£j Lajl^: "iiJJj ( ' ^^y^ ^4-^ Sjj^>^ dLlis (2>^ f-^ ^ ■ ((olj-t-sVI 

^_j^!^i Jj^A.M ^_^! L,.i.^_JI ^>^' S^ijoii 4pU^ti : .^^^^^ ^'^ 

. ^UUI Sl^ ^ J^! isj^ ^^ ^-f^' ^^ cr^J ■ ^^^^ ^ 




^ 





^ 




-NSV- 



■*% ?1*»1 



^j^^ ^ j^ ^Vl ii^ o' i^^J^b • 3^-^' '^^-^^ '1?^ SU.^! 



^' --^f 



4AAica ^L-iji j_^ L^k^l ^Ukiil ^j (^jiiJI o^>^l ._Jl=^j . 2_klli^l 

(ijj J (_s-la-4J - L^' £aJ^s-a A_1aa^ ijj^. ^.LAilVI 6 j-A fii^^^ jl ■ S J J^»--5 

<^-,.. j,<Vij artcularity t_yil^' j' phsiological ^^^^^^a^^I (^,>-AaJI 
JkUI ^LA^lL JjVI ^UJ! J.-=^j . Physical ^Lj^:^^' jl Acoustic 

^UJ! ij^j .auditory ly*-^' ^UJI ^ ^Lj 't^^ dLUj 
«^UJ!. ^Ij jl ^ ^1 4_i.uJLJ! IaWJU ^.c^L^ psychological L^u.i:> jl 



LT^J-^ J^ ' "'^^0 Jj"^' i-iiUJL-i o>xlj_a A_uiljjJ! 6J_a ^ t^a^J 
(^J-aia-oj Jj. j , l a.LiliL«.Ul j^j_xujlj J_£J LjLs—iJLluIj Vl_i_o i^__^l *^Vj 

( L^ILj^Ljj 1 ( i'-'JjK cj^HJ (^ ^7 ^-*-^l CdIj-^I cl>:i^ t^ U^^ 

. LoLj VLa_a| ii^js^HS ^j_iijL=JI JLaj&[ J l -V t '*t * lj_a t_>«-i-lj 
Sj^jj S^jJij) frictives c:jU£L£_1^Ij stops cjLLij ^ 1W\ ^ .1 1 

jj-a dJiuluj tj_j^ "i^Lj S^^jjiS ^jy^ j^*^' *J4-^ • '*lAj-5jJI L^jLijV^j 



^^.^^j ^^^ u^J c^>^' -^' ^^ J"^' ^^^' ^'' ^'^^' 

^ ^J^jUJ! U^j^ L^ -- -^b^ ^^3 • Linguistically significant 

^LiUl IXft ^-^L.M V J^> cJjj .i:^4-^ ^4^ Jl £^^^ " ^'^■^' 

^b ji .^ 6> ji '^^yu 1^ - ^>^b ^'^"^ ^^ ^^ ^^^' 

-^J^^ JlLuD JUi:^l fi < (>-- «cAp^-^» c5>^ l> ;£^U^I 

U jl \L.\3 %^ W^H J--^' W^-4^ Cy o-^ ^i'^ ur^J^h 

UU^l UJ t^ l-jj • V*^' '^ <> i^^' ^^' t^ '^ '> 
^^^1 li^ ^-^lii <>- ^-J ^'^1 UJ^ 'I^^' -^^ -^ '-^^^' 
,,..,<,-.K,. ^ ..ii^ < Ji^l 3W^ >^^ ^ iU. dUj ji^j> 

i^l ^ U^ UU Jli^ U« Uu^j i-i^b ->-^l ol^Uij 



-NYN- 



t^JJ=^\ oi^VI ^1^^ ^1^,1 ^ ^^^^ ^,.^^^1.^)^ 

jjjillj introspiction L^iXiJ iJi^liUJLi . <L^ J^Uxll ^^^-.Vlj 
:^.rfai^) o-fj^t ^>^Li] JjU.^1 ^1 ^ L^^ , ci.lj-^SU ^p^AJI 

IjL^! . J^^L^lj ^Ai^^UJ L^La^!^ ^.^ c^lj^I 5^U^ cJ^ 

U^^^j UjU^ij Lfo.^L^ ^1 SjUVLj . ;^.qUM) l^l^^^ ^ 

• ^3i^' JU^ Ls^ Ud^U^ ^ Lfe-j^ ^W^j U-u^^j 

(^^x^«Jlj ^^^^^j^^ ^^^\ 6^UJ1^^ ^3 Lai:! U.^^.^^t. 
dJUfi^ Lijs S^^UUI ^V^ u^^^tb t^j J-^ J^ Jl ^Ll-^ 

c> h^ o^^l aJ^j ^ <^j^j AJ^,^ f^b^! c> C>^^ Lr^ 



J 



CJ 



^ (jkUt jl4^ jl 3UVl£) ^j>Jt ^ jol; c^:^! ^t^l 6!^ ' t-^' 
. ^UJt ^ U JaI^ <^ UJU ^LUl ^>^ ' j/^1 ^ o^ C5^' 

Dj^t J.^ >Aj . ^UJl 6 jb {=>J^ J ^^^' J^ '^^^ ^-^' 

A^^j 0>^i J^W- Ji.>;^^ ' ^^' ^^^>^-^- ^--^l J--LilJI 

o!>-V! ^^ ^ ^ C5^1 ^"^l ' -'^' J ^^' ^^^^ ^^ 



. ((^0^)) aJ,>i-sj {(^!j^!,) ^Jkc^a^ oL2jkc-a^l 6J_4 ^f 

J^l jl (^LU! Jj^ ^ <lLUI j^l^JI ^^ 131 Ul..» : SaIux.^I oVVI 



■>-.- 



^^ikHI ^UJJ (>4i^U- ^ i^^H^I ^bMi c>=HJ c>UJk.--il 
V U^l UlJj . ^^\^^i o-J^ ...^i^' ^^'^' ^^ '5^' 

5U^b ^b^l .> t^ c> J'^ ^' ^' - " -" " " '^^^^ ^' 

,^>i]l al^ j^4i- cJi— ^J ' (^^ Uj>.j) ^13>^i ^ 

-\Y0- 



. sonority ,,..^! ^^^i sji ^ (oUi.^! ^l) oL^^l .1^ <. jLLcJ 
^ 41c .liii^ Vj . ^^a^i ,:^^U} ale j^j ^j^^ >4 U ^ 

,^ !iUlj ^^„^ ^1 LU . consonant «^LJ! o^>>-^L;» Cjj^UU^ U. 



4 6^J c.j.^\ ^j^ ^oJ! ^^^.^..^f _pV! J! ^^u^. 



plosive a.jb^vi Ulj}\ ^^l^ - }^a^ ^jji ^^^^^ U^^ a.^ 
Vj <il^ djo^ V jl,.^Vi ^i ^^^^ .yx. .[2}\j >.UK < stop 

^,^1^ ^^^1^ . o^^^..^i i^i^ <i:^j ^ij~Ji js u.^^ J i^\^^ 

JJ^ ^i . friction adKlr^V!)) ^^1^ Ua^J SJ^j^ ^^ . 3iU.jJ)j 
^.fu^l ! J4jj . Ug.4^ U^ d)j^ OA=^ UW, J^^ m^ ^ J^! 
oi>-^Vl (^>As^ i^U <_i£^ cj U -IU,. ^ oVVj dijji ^^jl^ ,^^ wil 






^^n.l ^ . ^Sis^ p-=Lk]t t^JwoiJi l3'J^I ^'-J ol^^*^! o^^ 

((Jil;^)) ^jJ> (ji A^^o^l «^VdJ! L-Sj,>^)) ^J^' j' C)(>>^V( ftJU 

2r.l.\\\ L4^1^ (_^L.VI ^ l^lj 6b - -^J^^ *^ «^ <> ->^» -^^ 
U^lj^i L4_Lx*i^ij ^j^l ^^^1 t_s-^» ' Sj4-^S ._^L^ C5JJ-:i ^-^ 

^ . ^U^lj h^UJ^ oL^KJ! <(^.^-^=-^i jl ^j^» c> f^^^ '^'■^^ 
.U U.jj>> : ,^ o^l J^ ■ 6:^^'J J'^b -^^b 6--^' -^J^' ^^ 

.LkJ! 5L^:i^ ^ c^V JUi o''^ ^Jj . 6^b Jl^' ^^J ^-^^ ^-' 



^^U .>^ ^Uul J j^ IfiK ^j ^^ ^U . Ll^ i:u ^j 

ft * 

^Ui! ^ ^:iiu! a.,^^ ^j ^^j^^uii ^!jji ^^^ , aas^^^oLaj^ 

t5^' U'j-jl l^j ^j^i^ < *Li^Llc ojjxjj ^Ul 13ji ^ c;^j^! ^.."Ij 

-^YA- 



f^ 



LIj ^Jls c^JJI {^^J^- 6^^ ' LJf4-i^' lJ:^tJ,>*-^' U-^ '^'j Ls-^ f4^^J 

*^>^t Oj^^^j lXjJLII! t>a.3_j J^^iiU^I ^liUJlj <i_Sj^l (j^j^-aJ!) 
LaaLo^ L^La-^j (ujl^^waSfl) ^UljSri tj^ 4j;iUJI t>L ^l^llU o jU'^.M^ 

((i^Ls-J! 6>LiZj\ iiUJVI j_yyLu^[»j ((^U_J! ^L^alJ JiLUV! ^JLc-aJw 

If f- ^ 

ft J- ' s- 

it^^-wS 1^1 ijjLS) i^i i^ (1 a flj^'^" jl) l^UJE^j Ljij^Sfi j^i>>.U . c-u-LuJ! 
S'j l 'at^ oL^jJj oL? ' ^-*-^' ^'.>^' J:^^-^ V^'.>T^' S_j!illj 



■ v->- 



-^Y^- 






i^'-^ 



t_)-j 



f^ 



J! tijl.!^ 4_LUJ! (^i^i) ,J^J\ ULJI ^ ^^^^^ i^^j^ ^U 



Organs of Speech 

^L^Vl j-A (cjkll! JL4^» Jjj^ J ^i^ ^ 2jJL^I (> o^ 

dJj . UAjI ^..u^^lj Li=.^^lj A^J-^^' -^j^^U *^^--^' J^ ''--^ 

t c e 

.^'Qji ,.;A^ al^ 'uf^ ^L^V! .^.^ Luj ^! 4^A^! a£^! Cy> t^ 
. ai^l ^t^l u^LJi lla Jl J^^^ uJ^^^=^^ '^ " ^4^,^..^^ 

aJJi tj-a 't'M^-a'j iJjJ^ ^^ iJAlaW «Jkl]l jL4^» 






: ^^ . L^4^ JoU: ^J Jl^^^ o) <U$ dJj ^ Oi^l ^ J^ Jl 

dU*^ Jkll! ^L^£.! ^2jI < S_j3L^ 4_i.^Lua3 (cjUllI ^uA£.i)) 4_l_iailJi - S 

^^f .-fl^Uij I4J of Jl . 4j^:ill!l ol^^VI jlj^i Sja^^I L^iiulij 

(> < Sj^Ij ^.lil^j ^l^ tjlcj\^y^^\J^^{ji . Ij^j, 6f^>Uj U 

'^ "j^"'"^ * f:-*-^ (j-j'j s^U^i uJu^ , (lUiij Liaj <Cdji-iuiJ oL«*J^ 
d^^^kl^ 14:,! . AloLli^ U^J ' 5^^ i:-Ukc.! «t3kiJI JL4^» -vU-:'.^ - Y 

dU^ . Sj^^^aJI AjUxuj <Ial_^i^ cjju-=JI li^ AKf^.^ll ^ Uj^j 

!j-A Jj^m" ^ IAjj .«U^j ),^\/^ ^-^i>^ Aj-j,^ll jLjjVI ,_..\..\""j 

U-Jis^ . l£^^ UjU ^1 , l£j^.i^ l-s^SH^ Ji=^! ^U^! .--.^1 - r 

-WT- 



' 4^ L^ "^l f^ Jl f^ ^ ^^ -"^ ^' ^-^ ^ ""^^^^ ^ 

. a:4^i 3^^i ^^^b *j^^ ^j ' *^a4^>j 3^(>j 

Wl- >> JJ J <> br^ ' l>^ '^-^ '-^-^ ^ '^'^-^^ ' ^^^'^ 



iVli^*^ 







2- Teeth 



(J 



3- Teeth-ridge (,,iU| ^^^) ^^^V) J^^^l -r 

4- Hard palate (,^1^1 i_^) ^^j_j, ^^^^j _ ^ 
5- Soft palate (.ill^l ^^^f) ^! di^j -o 
6- Uvula Sl^Ui-^ 

7- Blade of Tongue ^L^| ^^ _V 

8- Front of Tongue (^UU! j^^) ^l^, ^^ _^ 
9- Back of Tongue ^UJJl^^ ^^.<\ 
10- Pharynx Ji=J|-S* 
11-EpigIottis ^U>J!^UJ-\^' 

12- Position of Vocal Cords l^^^\ ^bj Vl ^j^ - S Y 

13- Tip of Tongue (^L^) ^i_ui jj^ _^ y' 

14- Larynx (Position of) (^uVl ^) S^^^O^j Ukl. - ^ 1 

15- Windpipe ;^j^| ^_^^^^, __^ ^ 



4_s^^ajL 



-sn- 



u 



LS 



3^_^j x^^'^-^ll 4_;U^ ^jUJJ! ij^ ^-M^jj . ((2-ax.=^!)) ji epiglottis 

. Sjiijl-i-o 5jjj-£uj djij-i-aVl (IhJj^ t^ j^--*,)-^' (jUtoJ 
Vocal bands jl Voeal Cords : S^j^^l jOjVt 

^j . glottis jU>JU j^^^^^l o^^jJI UfJ l}j^^ L^-^'^J -i^^' ^^ 

ij < *=-ij^! jjj^ ^^M," -i^jjJ j^"^' t> u^ji^i v-A^ '^J ■ ^'-^' 

s 

jl^l ^^ ^^! t^ Sjj5 ^j^^^x^i 6iP^ u' -^^ LJ^"^-3 

: ^ ( djLjji ^UijV! aJJi ^1 . olj-^Vl ^_H^ <La±Li^ ^^-^j' 

. breath (_^4All!Li ,_^L=JI ^^^jJ! — ^ 

.chest-note ji musical note S^jlxu^j^ <~i^ ui^ ^'-^ cj-^ W^*^^J ~ ^ 

. whisper SJi^^jJI lA^. ^^ \ ^ o ** ' ^ J ~ ''*" 
. glattal stop *JaiJi S^-^-A (Ih!^^ ^^ (_r^ ^-^^f-*-^J ~ ^ 






^ oji^. ^Ujl^l^^i^lUiLL ulojj U4J^ t>S^ ol(_>JilU 
■(,>f^' J?L^) «a"^l» i^,>^t ^^ilkx^VI ^ ^_ylu4 U 4JUJI aiA 
.voiceless sounds A^j-^! c.!^>^V! jll^ Jlklj ^! o!,>uaVl ^^j-a^j 

dlj^ ^t_a^uj *±*aa^ ( y^J^ liLikil Jjllikl) jl t^l^jJI P-LcAIj ^ 

. tj^Li ^LkUlj li^jxuj U^IlLjj U^^'qj ;^\ Li^j;^ j^ ^jijUi 

<Lai_j dja:^*^ 4_jjjJ ^_5-Aj . Luj.,-^) jLjjVI <jjjii i-fl^^AJ L-« Jtilj ai ^a 

. Voiced sounds ^jj j •^"^ ' 

6-= ^j-Lj ^-L-ij ^ jLSjVl u>1j whisper 5Ji.^jJ| aJL^. ^_j_fl 
.f^i^-j Laj^i^j 1 >l.^" j^ . ^^ i3^U ^ ^2>^j '.>4-^' ^L^ ^ -» ' A J 

j^ia. ^ ( <i;.^^l 4JL=i. ^ whispered «6_^^» ttij.^l j^.^i , ^jbJI 

. jta^l 5J.*A i>Ji^ ^-^^ oJ>JjJ' t^J -^ 








(!) 



(v) 





(-) 



(-) 



(Y) ^j J£i 

. «jl ... <iLiJ!^ ^■Laj!^ #'l_xjl^ pLlJl ^JiA 'Luj^.a.g.AJ I 

i ^[ ... JldJIj JljJIj a^A^lj pLJl£ ( voiced Sj^^^^a-Jl ol^^.'-^VLi 



-NVV- 



. A_ijjjU) « Uali SJjui^ L^JsjJl ^Ls^ j_3 "^ j"j'-*'i< ^Lj aVi ("-i-^j \ '-* j 



Tongue : tjLuii^} 

jc-s u'-^tJ^ ■ ^ cjIAUi ti*;LAj*> aJLiaA V^ . i3l3jJ! F-' '^-^f ' a_aI ^^ ,>^J 

. <^jx}\ ^Sm\ tilJdJ £jjjj-s5-fljj «ujj^l (jljjJ)) jl «j_i__>aj! jjLuJjI)) <_ijjjJ) 

.jjLuJ == tongue LaKJl iJJ^ i-^^*:*^ ■ ^^'J?''}^^ "LxlM ^^ !iH« JLaJ! tdJ j^j 

o' ^^^=^i^^J ■ J^ '■^ Jl ^.>=^ ek^ 6j-° J-'-=^ J-*J .'UiJ! ^jOx-^j 
I aLcuJI ^! 6jLc o!,J-i.<sVf ^L&le, ^.axy^j .SjJAJ-* VLSxwIj LcU-^jI jiisXi 

'■le-^ 4_j^-J jjrfoLSi:. *^-=>»JJ l-^Jua Ll-a^ 

^r*-> U JjLlaJ! )>Jj^! j_Aj -back of the tongue- b^j^ J ! (jLiJJl yr"^' ~ '^ 

tdliJ! Jjlii (^JJ! ^J=J^ j^j i front of the tonge 4_dji-a j! aJaj^j — Y 

. <lUi J-iLij (5^i ^3^^ J-^J ' blade of the tongue ^jLuJJf s-Jjia — f 
tip (or point) of the <Uj jl 4JLjLp ^^ * ^^LuaU 45^>i=.! p5J>^^ dlLl^j 
.^LJJS ^j^ -^^ ''^"'•- L-i^i l^Lkb o^ ftJ!jJI (^ i^J^^' Ij-^ cl>^J tongue 
. ((root of the tongue i^L«^i J-t^l)) t^-«-^ >^^ p-J>-=^ dLx^j 



^ o*-^' ^ J-'S^i ^>.u^l t J-Aj . the roof of the mouth ^1 »_ai^ j) 

.teeth ridge or alveole = (lokJl ^jLlu^Vl Jj.^! ^iij ^y Uj) UUt ji >i!l^l f^ola - ^ 
. hard palate (jUJb ^^^..^lu ^j ^ ' m ^^) ^-J^i dl^l jl dl=J! ia^j - T 

. soft palate (jJJl^ ,H-^ "^J-^^-ij) cl^' ^^^^^ j' "^^^^ cs"-^' ~ ^ 

^llu.Vl .-^A. ^IjJ) .±1^1 ^ai^ c> i^J^I ^J j-a 'ciJ:!^' ^al^ 
Uj A-iill £J^ Jx^LkJl j^S Lol . j3^>-6j «^J^-a» ^j ^Ij^^ UkJl 



^JLiLUi ^u\U ^UAci (j-6 ^.XLlij . ^__jAiuJ! 'Aajj >-j 









^^.^ <aLi o^ U ^_^1 J! ^j ijU - o^^^^ '^3 6f"^ ^^^^^^ t^J^ 

j.:kXj Lsjlc (j^^S^J "^--J^ 



. *''«^jJI !1a ^1 tdl^l .ii^ UjI^ V! Of^^l 

Uvula : SL^I 

Nasal cavity : ^^^jVi uaj^^^J 

■ ^l):^^>*-^' f^b OJ^W JJ^I ^Uc- Jl-^S ^ 6J^j 



u^'^>^ j5 La^ LaLj LiLikil ^h'^M.ll Jikij ^j .oL^_>=JLi sLix*i-aJ! 
^j '^^ ^j^' a,^>^*^L^ olj-^VI t>^>^ j_5i^>i4US ^I^VI d>j^^-jj 



■oe^^^ (^1 ol^^^Vl frLali Lf-a^j . iXjLill JJaiJ! frUAcI ^ ^Ll« VI 






J 



^.> ji^ ^l:UIj JI^I Jk^ ^ L^ - :i^ u^-iJI U^ -i^^^ -^ 
ft I - t I 



. l4jlj sU^I Oj^ '^ J-i ■ ^3^' h^ f^ '^ 
l4^a^j . olj^'UJ ^4-SkiJI Lii^' c^ f^ JJ*^J ^' W^ '^3^' ^^ 




„phonetics olj-^'Vi j^ - n^^\^» i> Jj^i*» (v) ^^j J^^' 



: ((^jL^))) ^Jia..c^JI LA_j-a^ L-H-^ lj-2li=ij ;^J ijJ^LLJI & JJI 

: ^j-&j . supraglotlal cavities 
. the mouth ^1 - Y . the pharynx JLJI - S 

. the nasal cavity ^V! ^j^l - V 
■ (u:^*^^^ Sjlalu.1 jlc) labial cavity (^jltJl iAjjA2}\ ~ i 



4^^~^J <«uilL^ jj-'-^ olj^^Vi J^i^^ ^ L4JJ , the principal sonority ^ 



LJ^ ' 4J^^ tj^-i^^ ^^ J^^ ^^ C5J^ L^ ' ^LA^VI j3-a ajji^ <il 






u 



- «; 



^S.^-!^ {j£ UdJ 



J ^'->^Xb Ss^ljiil JU.J ^> t^j^j A ?i O^i M w 5AJJI fULi 



^jjLiiJI J luiiJI ^ '^i.&^j 'dj-c^l iiA=^ Sj.^..^ Li^.>-=' i^i^' u'^' 
(.iji ^ sjijl:^! ^_yi^ LJlia U^I^ ^J (_s-s ^4t^^ o^ ■ ^'-J"^' i_r^ 

j^j_^! ^ ^.4^^ 3^^i e^^^^' *^^^' L?^ *j'^*-^ • U^j^j o-J"^' 

jA^ Lf^l SjU.^} jj^^^ J. kU i >iL.A^Lj ^s_g_^Ua^S cAl_j ^j 

■J 




|l) ^j JliJI 



^J\ ^j . <2\l^j tij^^.^ c-u^ JkUl ^Ukiii ^ o),>^Vl ^j^ 

ii^^l 4ju^j ^>,jlilJI J^ ^ XjJj 141^0 ^ 4jjU^! cJljUi 
j^^ 4^aJl^Vl ..^j^Ll^j ^jLhI ^j^j tj^j-^i u"jjJI Jj-^L 
^'-H Ji oUiJV) J( - ^^U <^j^^ ^.^ uu^ta^gTij - t:^a=^l 

^j£ L^ A^ Uj^ y^^jx^j , ^>^UJL ,^Uil Lk.j , JaI^^Ij 
f4^.>:^*-^ J^i*^ ^ja^ (Jl 1^4^ ^^j ^Lu^j^-ad^j ^^1 2-ij_* jA=^ 

* AJJi^^l L^Lj^L^ <AU! l^l^J ^/Vi S^kiJIj ,^^^L^A^\ j£.dJI 
L^LlJ ^_^ lAiJt olj^l tj! ..5_JV jj IaA^jUj ( S_.._.<^ -) 'Lij^j ^j--^- 

^^A^^ ^^i^ . 4K pUjj j^h^i j^i^j ^^h^i >«=>Li£ *^}^JlVb 

-Ml- 



cjIjjI oIj <,_^^^( jI ^^KiJ 2uu.ijai a^L^l ^Ji^ (grammar) <iij) dcl^ 

. S a,..i'ailj ^^JoJ-all CjUa.U^ i^\ 



-Ma- 




r 



-^ 



./ 






k 



N? 



- SIV 



£^1^1 



(LlU ^^Iki Jj"^' ■ vowels, consonants ^ j-* 1U.^ . il U eijjA-aJlj jj4^i^l 






^ Jl^l ^LUI ^^1 1^ L* olj^Vi JS . ^j.-J! o-J-^' J*^-- LS^ ((USUJi), oI.>^VL j,_j^=UI 
j>j ,^^A. ^j^jj l^\ji\ ^j4^ (i^^ f.J>-j) <(ol^^» cak.^^1 JLiAl^l IJU L.^1 J3j 

,c*:L^» J «c,j.^» o^ uA*^' '-^ ur^ 3_>^ '^J -sonority ^^^^^1 ^^^1 S^ ^^J • ^U. oLS^i 

jJk^^l J**l-I {ijj^\ t-LlJI oj^l 'L-L. ^) j^ljjVl j-l^ j^jLi ^ ^1 ^j^ ^U dLUj 
^..~t. ^j^ ^IjjVl ^!^ ^>) consonant ^i^UJ! ^j^L, ujj^Vl sL^ U ^ ^^i^J «o-U^» 



J\ j^lj JLJI ^ ^1^1 jj^ Uj> ^LUJj S^^^j jtjjVl 2-^j 
j:^ i> LliUa 1,^ j-oj L^ JkUl f.\:d ^ (.1^1 ^Ij , ol^^L 

C5>^ oVUJIudai ^ ^_ki-aJU . syllable ^-kUi 51^ ^ 2^>=JI - ^ 

ji UH^ } jjj^^ (jVI ,^1^ jj^^ ^ ^>-=» Sj^j *^^^-^^ ;J=J^! 

iS^^AJ ct^^ lj[ . sonority ^yL.cu^\ ^^j]\ S^ 4^_^i jU^ - V 
l^jjj stress ^^aIU l^l^j^i ^bVI J..:=^ L^l . ^^Vi ol^^x^VI 

o^b ^s._i-aJL^( j-^L^ ts-*-*-*" C>^-5 '^''^ ^laUs ljj(j_ual dU-a 

6J^ ^j . ol^^L .JkiJI jiiL l^U LlUijI aUiJ! ai.b ~ r 
t'3^' 6:H 3^j^^ L«L-! v-^^ u' WJ v^Vf UllUI A^UJi 



lIuLui(?.t^ljjj-d l-i^j 2_i:;,^^t jUjVl ^j) tl>AljLJ! ij^jjLh^I 

^iXj u' UJJ H^b ^3^^' J^ ^^^ '->^ ^'^' .>^ u' *^ 3^^' ^L:^' 
^ Uw^ (^Ij^JI c5>?-^ 3^-^ u' UJ-^J ' J^^ J ^^ f^l *^^tU^ (^ 

■fH <"^i Lf-Lt ^-XLj Sjj-^^aj o^j «=-'j-^' jjj-^ c-*-«^ u' '^^ u~^ 
^1 oi^VI dJj^j. ^)j u->^l^ ^Vl ^>^^ L^b . ^1 o^ ^-j 

^lUl) ^1 Ujjij ol^uoVl ^^^1.-^ i^^L aUj^ (s^^l Ij^j 

Ul . Normal Speech ^jbJl ^^^1 ^ ^JM'^ U-^ ol^^S ~ ^ 

U.^^! ^_^.a^ U ji_>.^i ^')^\ ^j^ t^jUJS ^:ilUU a^j:=aJlj 
oLS^i dU J^b ■ ^j-^f^ oL^>^ U^ ^ cu^ . Whisper 



• f ' " 

L^ oUJ i£JLu tjl CMJ) cuj^l (_^^>^l d^..;1l t>Dj .J^^^^ JUilj 

i^iii^i Uj^ <ai^ ^^^^ ^ ^j^ u^i^>i^i cU^ c.^^ J^ - r 

jl uL^ ll>4^-- - ^1 ^ .u JLUI JU ^1^1 j^ V o.,^.^ J^ - i 

Cj,^^*^ La-AJis.! jl ^Jl (^U (j^ £>^}-s ajlj-A ^>^ ^^J-*-^ J^ — 

Lpi^ij pUt jio <gV . j^j^ ^:iui u^j j^^ . ^:iui^ c^l^ 

' U^^j ?.LiJt j^ U^ (oijj) jl) jj^l^VI IJA jxj \ j^ a- ^ 

j_ji Cjl5^>=JI jj-o O'Mjb < t^J^ Cj-aL-a 0,^.(-a <Ai_^l Sjj-ofJIj 

Robins : Genral Linguistics, An Introductory Survey, p. 94 : ^ki! ( N ) 
- NOT - 






.1 ^ ' ' ^ 



Clij-i-s tj-* *(]''" Sj^ljJt i_aJLIj Cjliil! (_>-^ 1^ A-LoL^ oLaK dU-A 

i^a ^jJI j^iii (_>^^ '-ij,>*^ J4^ jj'>o H j^ La^ that can be sung ,_ylij 

e 

^ ^l^i jjj^ 2_i_^ ^j cjL^>:J1 (j-^^'-i^ t> A^^Lk ^\^y^} A_i! 

S t 

. ^^yLlJI^_>Iilll (_j-fl ■•> -^ (J '^ A ft_^ ^mn"j U^LL | ^-.'^a j-^'m — ^>=^l 

^^^^:^j ^jj.4^ ^JIa^ l4-iJI l>f^jj 2_^Ux 2_jLL£: LajJj! ^I 

ajLi^VLi l j'a"< lj ( 1-ijj^l fi>J-A eJujUij U^-tH-' ^ i ^ 1 t' 4_uj|jJ UJ 



See, Ida C. Ward The Phonetics of Enghsh, pp. 65-96 . {\ 

-Nor- 



. A_iii^^l L4A,j^j Ujj^ Ciilli^l L^4^ <^UK]! J^^^l 

6 j^ 0-=»'j-^ O-^^^-i ^j-^»-^ (^ CjjL-ai ^2jL$ - SjL_L)^l 6 l^j 



L^L.^ 



6J^ . ^^1 ^lU! ^^^j ^J ^^Sfl ^ oLS^U . (^XoU^I 
ci^illi^i ^> ^__^i ^ , <u^^^ j^ (^,>-^! ^llJ) 3,^U ^ioLu^l 



j[£l.\ c> ur^ ai . d^ ^^ <:i>L-:i^ i—r-) ^J^^' oU^iUJij 

u^ - ^^«^i iiA 3iJj o'^* ^ ^-^b ^WJ' ^ s^^^b ^^^ 

^Ji^,.,^Li 5.^ajt_JI ^j 2„.^^ij Sj..^lj 4^.JUJ! (^j) £>:i-^^i 
^l^lj ^LJIj u_ajVl j^ ^^1 v^ (^^' *^^-^ -^ ((ol£^» 

. \_^ ^'jJi U^j d^i ^^jF^, Lfkjj e^^ ^^J ci^l^^! 

.li^pj^ iluiAi ^^1 ^ta^ L^ ^i ^ <^^i ^j>^i ^-^j 

^jj^ U ^ L4-jH^ L^ ^3^ ■*J->^ A^^i U:jI>-^ I,>-^>^j 
^ l^L^j U,^^..-^ oU^j u^l^ t> o^-^^^l ^\^^\ ^Uk 



- S 00 - 



oUJU UaJjjI uj'oO . C>^3^-^ ^ 4_i_jX:J! A^ J^U^^ . ^I^j 

,31-U) 3W-I ^ 6--- :>-- jl ^.j^ ^1 L4I. {-U^y^ J) ^\^ 
^^ cJ^I ^ A^^ .. ^1 ^UiiJIj ^UUI^ sL^l^ JUJL£ , Ai^,>^l 
L4^^ Xi. (^ j^ S>^l^) _3l^|j ^ui^ ^Vl 2- dUJ) lA^.^M-. V 

oLh ^ ^j dx. j^i j^L^ ((S>^ij A1411 uUVij *^Ub ji^i ^j 

'■ f e 

o\ J\ la^b '^b W^ ^Lj ^L^^l cij^l 6L^ u ^^u^ 



- \o^- 



< ^Ij 3-- L^ ^Ij^ ^>^'^ ^"^'^ ^'^'^ ^^'^» ^ ^^ " ^'^' 
^ .^ :iU . L^ JkUl JU ^1^1 jj>^ ^^ cj^j ■ ol^^l 0-='^ 
J^iiJI L^-^ U£ 2_;j^l lJjj^I i-c^U. ^ *iJi c*:l£ I Jb 

UJi£j! A^l^i 6Lh ^j U^'^ '^^^I -i^^ -^ ^^'J ^^^ t^jl ^ ■^^■^' L4, -i^ i-il S^Vl 
^I^Vl 0- Ui- t+i-^ csl ' f ^ ^^ ^4^'^ OL-J L^^^J Wii^ ^ V (^ U^j S^j Uli :^) 

V) ^L5^ L4^jS cu^ :^ L4^)>" uLhj '::'^^' -^-^ O! - '^^^ ^'^'■=" ^J >'^' -^' ^ ^^^^ 
.dJ:^ J^l j.^ > ^ L^j - J:5 c^ L^^^ L^ . .1^1 ^^ iA^ ^ L.U .^ Ul (L4i. U^ U1.1 

- NOV- 



a>)j < ,,A^ J! L^..^^ ^U^l ^^^1 ^ ^ ^j, jyos.'^lj 
■ c^^^' ^ ur^,>- f-^-l^ f^^^uiU! o^ J-Jlj • u-*^ f-i -^ lh^\ 

Uix. .U ^^^! ^^i 1^ J^ .JkU) JL4^ t^ Ul- J^ ^j^ 

(^) - i VI • 

cu^ c> <^li^-JI ^j^! ^1^ ^L dJ J .Uj! ^ ^L ^ . l^oU-, 
ouu^ s.^ ^^^1 . l:^! ^^ s^u. ^_^, ^ j^^i ,^^ ^f JU) ^ .^^ ^ (r) 



. ^yij ^uij ^Vi 2JU ^ cdJ jj j^u 

<^U ^jjI dS ^^ o^I o' -^^ L^^' j^-^' '-^ o^J 

^> j^Vi ^^1 L^U-; UjLo^ LLLu^I o-=^ d^^ L5-^ ,^^JL^ 

o^J 131 cdWuj)) : J^ ^1 Cr^» • '^^^^^^ c.\^% ^_jUi:^'i 
^3^ V ^LuJI u'V <^ 6^ Sj^^ul. J^^l 5>^ '^i£ J^j:^ ^ 



. «L^ c^j Ijl 1^^ ,a^- L^ ^^^1 ^ iLi LpL. ^^^- V dUV 

--^j^' t> tlh^i^uji ^u A^uj ^ijJi j^^.^\ jju j^ujj 

^ ^-l.*^ 61,^^ j:iU al^ (^:iliJ| U,^! ^LS^i ^^) 2^^, 



i^jLL- jIaj LJj^ ja!j (^gi^S Sjj^-^ aJaI-JI *1a ^^^l^^ u-;i ^j^j . 
oj^ 1 j[ dl j^j . Lfj J^l ^i^ ^' "-^jj^ ^ bJs^lj oj^-^l cl)L}>^ 

^ A^L^i j^i ji c^Liii 3jj^ J^ '^^i ^':>^* t^J '^1 ^' 

A>r^ V o!>-=i diil^j Uili^ ^Id^i c^j^ ' J^' _Hj t> ^^^T^^ ^^ 
Ujl£ ^!j Ji=JI ij^ l^L^ dj.i^ Lo jji IIaj . ^UflVlj JoLsVl JU^b 

.5uil^ j^ !^Ui. OjVl j^ o>^t ^_^^ U^ < ik jU e^l XikLu^ 
LJj^ c^jl < 6i>«x:i ^L^i o-^^-^ j^^i ^'.^-^ ul^ ^^^ *^ ^^^^^^^ 

- sns - 



(I>^ o^^^l JjL^ 4_ik ^j.^Lj A_aAAj|_^ JLJL^ J^il&xH !1a j^ jll^li 

'^J-*-^' uW.>^ J;>'-=^^s^ _>:i£- ^i'-ic <Ui Cj.j^! ^U^j . Ji=Jj (-ua5! 

'u^! . ((<a1^ ^^Ai^ ^UA o,>^!» uL>L«j Jiiijl ^_,.^^ ^'lu.:! oa^ t> 

U:! ^i J^l^ ^ <i^U^tJ ^)^i ^^^ 4.^^ -^U ^V olJJU 

2~^j!)) J^ a^,>AiAJ d=^ ^ ^^ , uiJVi Jk:^ ^^ ^O^jf S_j>.-^ Jl^IrOj 



\j<,jj ^L J^i ^jK"-m\ y^t j^ &jj^ c5^l i^ t>j 

. llijL J gj^-^a O^L^l ^l^>L« IfJ^ U^ L>A^ 

ft 

^UJt IdA ^ 6^L. c5^' J^ 6^^^ ^'^ ■ ^^ ^^^^ - ^'^'^ ^^'J 

Sj^ij 3:^.Iid! < S^>^.^i oK^I Js. AJLo^ JMi (J'>J' ^l^j-Jl 
.:^taj *J^I J^ M*^ JSL*I 4j ;»1.^ Uj .a^l i^i.>^it aiijkli ulS>^( t>iM 

^ U^i.^ UJ 3^j j^>l ^LU! oji-i j/^W cj^t^l ^U^i^l Jl 
, i^j^Vl j^J\ J!iUi-! 'u^ ^ oUU^ ^j .J^! Ujliii ^i 



Jl^_j . J^i J^ Ij^^ u^ ,Sji"-^l oL^^L; L^iS^C^ C.UUI 6! -ij.>^l ^J ■ '^ h^ ■ 

i'.!..!^ i-^^lj S,>^lj i-iilL; S,^i^^l O^^l ,,— 6:J- -i^'"^' ^1 <> Sj,H^! 5--iJI ^ ^ aJ: 



LS-'l J^-^ ■ ^i^ j' 2.>:^*^ UJ^ '^J ' A_a^(j Sj^^ij l.=^2l}\ 

■ [-V-] <^jj^^S ^a^JiiJ! oU:iUJU a^UU! ^ 5^_.,^jli oLS^I 
U.LJ1 ol^^l ^i,i^ U^ JaLIj ^Llil ^ jl^lj JjVl JLUI 

<Sj.-UI (^ 5_L_^ 4_^^ 4£j^ Ij^j VI C;..nj ^Ul a jJij V lib LiLikii 

■ [j] H;.>^'j [ ] Sjj.o ^l i 2_axAJi iJAj J^i dJj^j ( duration ^^XJ I 

consonants aJLoU-JI olj-^-aV! i^LkJi jj ^.^ ^ _. -.^ -^ j I ^ ;] '> j < 

- NM - 



. <_JLl1I ^^ii^l cjLi«.'^ 2:l^U^! cj\^y^^\ t> Ujsjji 

^Ai^i t> li^ 2r^-:i ^i ^^ ^ ^J^ ■ iisj^^^ ^^' =") 
^^ c^ ji^i ^ Ji^s ^3^j ■ ^U^' ^s^ 3^ ^ a,^) 

. jljJ) adfJ iJ^ajJI ft--a LfiAiuk I 'f>\ <i^ 

^^1 J^ . ii^U^! c>!,>.-aVl t> jl^ij ;^LJI oat ._,U^'^i ^ofj 
iJA ■_j j--"l A_ijL^ Uj^j o^ S^iJolJI .jL^VI aiA ol l3^U 
^^1 ^ A^>^ c5^' ^-^'^l 3^' '^ ur^ ^Llk^lj UK3 dUA J 



AiiJ ^j.^) uxi^^i ^ ULoii L^fajj-c (j^^^j 2x*L-^l QJ^^^Vi 

: 4_ijVI UioVI t^jLi . 4jj_^) 

^j ca->L^ o^>^ 2:^^^ c^j jl^l ^1 ii^^ j/vi JLU! ^ 

«^>"» LT^ 6j^' Jj*-^ ^W^Ls . «d^» ^ JLI} ^:il£JI IIa Jiaj 

U^j l^aUJ Jjl ^ Lui^ L^lj , j-wa , ya] ^\Sj^^ ^[l£.j±l^ 
(jol^,^ ^Ul^l A^^! ^ J ^^"-a JI j> j] : ci.L$^l ^jj Sj-aL^! 

LS-^ f-LjJIj o-^*.^ >'^ t^ jljJ) t_si^ S^ LUl <Oji: (^jj) liAj 

• ^"'^J^ J ^"j'j AJLoL^i Cjl^^u^aVI ^j-o CiJtij La^_la Jli .Cjaj _js^ 






t p^JL^j 



^^1 j[ i (^ Vj ^Lk ^j j^j diphthong Is^^ "^j^ t> 6''^J>^ 

(o^j^) ^ jl^' -t- ^^-=^^1 L^ t^jLLJiXu^ u'^-^j ^^ ^b *-^b 
oL-b^i^ 6:^l^l^^t ^>) ^^1 il^ ^U oij (ce^) ;^ *^LJ1 + ^..^liJb 

^ ^^.r.nM, Ji ,_>Ajlj a_J_c ^j^LJ l„.Mi. a :^ (u^L^ "^j-j -^h^LuJI 



La^l jVm-%, Jj^j . -S^J « Jj_Li.l)> ^5ia_j 1^ La£ < Jjj"'Qi< .Ao LjstLi. 1 jl 

. «2lt5fcfaaJ! L^jij^l Q^j^i^ L a_f* . A"ii . lljji» 

uiU-aal i ^^"jo.n j j^ ^-^^ '-^ *^LLa i_>ujJj . semi vowels i:i»LS^_>sJI 
Consonants = Ci^\j^ ^iijl ol^^^^V ^LlUI ■ aj\.^"1 l 11a a*j 

jjL^ < «Li-d^^AAJI j^ 3j^ ' ^j'*"^" J-4j ' (vowels Cjl^,>:i. jl CjjI^^-^-a — 



o!j!>^ ^^jkiJl) t_^LiHj 'SUiajt ol,>^l ^^ ji^l S^ I4J ^Vl j( 

e e 

J J \ .Jl 6J-A ^_^ u-=>-^J ■ iS^^^ cjLiUl (cj)j-«=1) o!j,>-fl-3 Jjd^ jl 
^^jU^ tjj>Ui «2_jjjJ^i Li^jJ^^i)) JU.J j?4l» o^ '■^^"■^'' ^LUI 

c 
* T-v" iSjlL^ oUu-a (^[ Jj-i-ajJI L^-a-d k_i^»-i-aJ t -i-a-Lulj <iLAi-i£, jLajI 



- ^^^- 




r 



^ 






j^w^liJl ( U^ 



(4^^! t^LJf. jlc. iJj^^Lj ^J'C^^S) consonants 4l^L^i oij^'^'i 
oijhH^ \''itSj C>^J^ %-^ ' h^^J^J ^ J^ ^-^^ "^->^ ^^'^ 

. o^Jt-aJi Cjj^^I-J jiaJ-31 -U£. ^5^1 JJ>* ^'^^^ ~ ^ 






Djj^f j^ j^j^^f (^j-o^-Ji oj-^Li voiceless (_^j-4^-JI ---j-^iJ ^■•■j 

Cjtg-tj-aJt j, 1j-^ A L^-iiaaj LaS! S_ijjaJ! <iJJI ^ ^j^(3 /ill oljj-aVlj 
JJJ-*-^ t!""^"^ "^^^tJ-^H ^-^4-^ £,'->^' 3j'"^J-^ ' ijJalll p\lxi\ (jjj P 

,_^-flL4.ujj voicing ^^.faJLj ^^^-a^wj Lft djj^i^ ULJ! aj_& ^^ iJ^^HS 
cj^^^li . voiced j^^4^^! cj,j^Lj ,'iVm^ jjl^'^-^JI (^jAJJl Cjj^^I 

L^-ikiJ L-a^ 5^^^3 ^iJJI ^ ajj^^=t^l AJLsLi^l Cj!j.<^V!j 

^ 'J-jI-S (^J-JS 'tJ-^J ■ '*^-uJ,3-a4=AJf 01^.4.^2.1 ^2)-* L&J-^.>=*-'^ ^ J J ^ -^ -^ If 



JLJI ^^1 p\^\ jjj^^ ^^^.^^ !^ UlJ ULik:l cjl^^i isM^ ^ 



^,^1 AW, 



j^ ^UlJ ! SJ-^ ui^U^ * (phoneme ji unit) a^>^ 3J^i '^ . W^.^-^ l^-*^ 



^Liiaj V <(c>^^-^J ^>f^» ,^;_^i^Ik>^:^) o' 45J*-^' ^J-^ o^ t^H^J 



^ J Jj^ ^v^i-J Lo ; 1 



.((LL-fl^ V) ;>„cw^ !iU o.aa.j-U uijIjj-fiiV) o^iii^j)) : 



, CaIuj La iji — jL^_aJI j! -j^j. ^A. "11 ;_)Lj ^]^ 

jW^ Cr^ «=-'j4^' JJ>^ ^ri^ t^ ~ f4^ La i_4c — ,_>uL«Vl j^ J^ilAj 
i A J -V L^ J^ i J_uJ)j j-^ ^ 11 ^j-J-i .«- ^ "I ^ 1 U( ,f^ ^ J_jJ_:2^ . a t> ^1 " 1 1 ,g 

:<iS tdJj ^ 4_^j-i-i^ Jj-^ -C5J-^' 2__i_:i.L^ ^ ajUkjJIj (_j^^ ^ lij 
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